1.Yagnaswami Sundara Rajan is currently Honorary Distinguished Professor in Department of Space (DOS), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). He has made major contributions to various aspects of management of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) over the past four decades.

2.Born on April 10, 1943, Y.S. Rajan received his Masters degree in Physics from the University of Bombay in 1964.  He joined the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad as a Research Scholar to work with Dr. Vikram Sarabhai’s team.    Beginning as a developmental engineer, he went on to hold several important positions in ISRO/DOS, Scientific Secretary, ISRO being one of them.  His strategic inputs to Prof. Satish Dhawan, the then Chairman, ISRO, integrating different perspectives from the internal and external systems that ISRO had to deal with, were strategic to the overall management and in giving direction to the nascent space programme of the seventies and eighties.  He was thus, a key figure who played a very important role in the emergence of ISRO as a major space power.  His work at ISRO was recognised internationally and he was elected as Member of International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) (1986), among the first few Indians then.  Recently as Chief Mentor ISRO Strategy Group, he was instrumental in bringing out a unique report (2011) for taking ISRO into the future.

3. Prof. Rajan’s contribution in areas like STI administration, institution building, diplomacy, strategic studies, environmental technologies and natural resources management has been widely recognized. At the peak of his career in ISRO, Y.S. Rajan made a shift in his career and began addressing various national issues and problems.    He was the first Executive Director (ED) of newly created Technology Information and Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), since (1988-2002).   Rajan not only transferred best practices and knowledge from the space system but also pioneered new approaches to deal with the even more complex problems facing India for which  technology could offer solutions.  TIFAC became world renowned.  The popular and path breaking book, India Vision 2020 by Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam with Y.S.Rajan is the outcome of his work at TIFAC. 

4.Prof. Rajan’s work at TIFAC and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) created technology consciousness in Indian Industry and to bring technology to their forefront of priorities as well as to show them how to pursue technology for business success.  His footprints in multidisciplinary applications of science and engineering can be seen in many parts of India, be it Mobile Diagnostic Clinic at Uttarakhand, TIFAC-Centers of Relevance and Excellence (CORE’s) at hitherto left out institutions, with farmers in Bihar, the early work for the Nalanda University, earth quake shelters in Gujarat, animal husbandry, composites materials or sugar technology, to name a few among the many. As a Vice-Chancellor, Punjab Technical University (PTU) and Scientific Adviser, to Punjab Chief Minister, he initiated a number of new institutional innovations which have now borne fruit.  

5.Prof. Rajan has been honoured with many awards including Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (1998); Fellow of World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS) (2010); Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters (D.Litt) from Jain Vishva Bharati University, Ladnun, Rajasthan (2005)



 The C Subramaniam Memorial Lecture



Honorary Distinguished Professor,

ISRO / Dept. of Space,

[This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.]

(views personal)


Organised by Madras Science Foundation

on 02 March 2012

at Chennai

SCIENCE AND PEOPLE OF INDIA The C Subramaniam Memorial Lecture organised by Madras Science Foundation on 02 March 2012 at Chennai delivered at the Triple Helix Auditorium at the Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI

Y S Rajan



It is indeed a great honour for me to deliver a lecture in the celebration of the memory of one of the greatest sons of India. He was a great politician, minister, administrator and statesman among the many titles that can be given to him. One major thing that stands out in his life, is his deep understanding of what “science” can do for the people of India. He indeed „made friends with science‟, in a Nehruvian sense. (See my website for “What is Science? Who is Scientist?”

 I had the good fortune of knowing him closely since 1989 since Dr. Vasant Gowariker the then Secretary, Department of Science and Technology (DST) was engaged in a project to provide pre-fab latrines to Bombay slums and to build a large garbage derived fuel plant as a demonstration to be replicated. CS as the (then) Governor of Maharashtra was a great supporter of the project. There were many discussions about applications of science to a actual real life problems of India.

 When the Jawaharlal Nehru Award was given to CS by the Indian Science Congress Association (1992), it was my good fortune of being the scientist recipient. The award‟s format is that one person should be great public figure and another a scientist.

 The Tamil poem I sent to him on the occasion has been published in my first Tamil poetry book “Nenjaga Malargal” (1999-Kalaignan Pathippagam). An English translation by C.V Karthik Narayanan is given here (Reference Blossoms of the Heart published by New Century Book House (2002), Chenna).


Bharathi gave the emotional fervour

Mix did he ever enjoyable Tamil sweet,

With my life-essence!

With the spiritual force beyond quantification

Vivekananda with Himalayan qualities

Gave a clarion call:

“Perform your duty for the country”

And roused my inner voice! „

Not wasting a second should we learn

New ways and technollgy,

And elevate ourselves in the earth,

And bearing the scientific ways

Should we build an exalted society‟

Thus did Jawahar yearn;

He did make some of his dreams,

Reside in me!

The award which bears his name,

Is further elevated by Subramaniam‟s name

Who give us the green revolution

I (who also got this award)

Glitter like a dust in Sun‟s light!

(Note: Jawaharlal Nehru Award by the Indian Science Congress Association was given to CS and the author).


Later interaction with him was rather intense after the publication of 25 volumes Technology Vision for India 2020 (1996). CS was very impressed by them as he had read the four volumes connected with Agriculture and Agro Processing fully. In a meeting with him at Chennai at his residence, he very much appreciated the work done and the road maps contained therein.

It is at that time he explained about the idea of the work he envisaged for helping farmers; what is now National Agro Foundation (NAF).

I remember still the detailed conversation we had. He explained in detail how he has written to the Planning Commission and others. He stopped then. Then with folded hands I said „Sir, may I now complete as to what happened?‟ I told a process and said that he would have received a letter after about six months that all these ideas had been already implemented. He turned to me with a surprise and said, „How did you know?‟ I said „ Sir, all the great institutions you had built or nurtured, have started adopting a standard pattern of response to any new idea!‟.

Well, we spoke further. I mentioned to him that we can consider supporting NAF under the scheme of Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council(TIFAC) which bought out the Vision 2020 reports after an evaluation. He was ready for it. The late Prof. S K Sinha who led the Agriculture Vision 2020 and was doing follow up in Bihar, came later, reviewed the plans. In fact he added one additional equipment for measuring residue of pesticides. The project was funded by TIFAC. Later Dr. Kalam also visited him.

 Building of NAF was an exciting story. I could see in him a great hurry. There were many amusing (then painful!) problems; we solved them innovatively. I had discussed with him many times that we need 10 NAF‟s all over the country. He had given a number of ideas of reaching science to people. I will describe one of it later as a plan of action for this august gathering.

Somehow I got a feeling that he was holding on to his breath (literally) to see NAF inaugurated. He was no more with us a few days later, after the successful inauguration.


NAF is just a small symbol that he was not just resting in the glory of Green Revolution or greatness of Rourkela Steel Plant (in those days) or the Approach to Science and Technology Plan (1973).

Among other things, he lived with „Science‟ and was trying to capture any step that was available to create new opportunities for Indian people. He actively participated when the then Minister of State for S&T, (late) Shri Rangarajan Kumarmangalam initiated a series of a public debate on S&T policy all over the country (1993). The meeting was at CLRI auditorium. MOS (S&T),CS, Dr. G Thyagarajan, (GT) and I were on dias. CS remarked that S&T discussions were safe at the hands of three „Rajans”. His directions were excellent.

 I am going to show you slide (slide-2) on Leather 2010 with an endorsement by GT and CS separately in two books (1994). This is the result of a national exercise conceived and orchestrated during 1992-1993 by GT along with TIFAC.

Many would not be aware that it was a precursor or prototype of the later massive nationwide exercise Technology Vision 2020 for all major sectors of India.

The reason I am showing this slide is that CS was able to capture the importance of that book for India‟s leather sector. (It later led to a Leather Technology Mission). Also perhaps he might have seen its potential for applications of the methodology to other areas. Leather sector touches the lives many ordinary poor Indians and also has a capability to absorb many elements of new advanced knowledge from science, technology, and engineering thus, increasing the economic value addition, so crucial to raise the incomes of Indians, from the subsistence levels of their existence.

There are many other examples about CS, known to even a person like me. There will be much more. One suggestion I have: There is a need to initiate a systematic and scientific recording of the great ideas and involvements of CS.

A very important reason why I dwelt upon the above items, is to make the persons in this august audience to ponder and to reflect as to how much they were able to use the talents and wisdom of this great man during his life time. Let Delhi be far away! But what was done nearby at Chennai and Tamil Nadu? Well, we cannot reverse the time. Let us at least venture to discover many other knowledgeable persons currently living in Chennai (with my limited knowledge itself, I would rate the “population density” of such gifted persons in Chennai being one of the highest in India) and make them continue the CS type of vision of using „science‟ „as a friend‟ to solve real life problems of Indians.


Now I will get into a few important principles, potentials and processes in the context of harnessing the friendship with science for people of India. 

I have described at length the Nehruvian quotation leading to the now popular saying “future belongs to those who make friends with science” in my book “Empowering Indians with economic, business and technology strengths for the twenty first century” (2001) (see Article section for a download). The Chapter 1 of the book is “Glimpse of Technologies: A vision for India”. It was an updated version of my talk delivered at Kolkata for receiving Jawaharlal Nehru Award (1992) which I got with CS as described earlier.

Nehru‟s language used in 1937 is very poignant and powerful. However for simplicity using current day practices of power points, I am showing a few slides.

First one (Slide 3)describes as to how Nehru arrived at science: Politics bought him close to People; he saw the Poverty; then he sought solutions in Economics; he finally came to Science. 

Nehru was not merely imagining then (1937). National mood was expecting practical solutions for people from Indian scientists. You will be amazed to see an editorial from the Ananda Vikatan (1935). See a slide (Slide-4) of a woman with a kerosene stove. I am not translating it in full. The editor while welcoming the introduction of the stove to help women, is concerned about its safety; and also that it is being IMPORTED! (Videshi). Then it ends wondering whether the existing hundreds of science degree holders could do something to make a SAFE INDIAN STOVE. In every part of India, be it a dry land framer or a flayer or shoe maker would have had such lurking hopes! But what is now happening? I don‟t think even the most educated persons look forward to some thing from our sprawling „science establishment‟! Why?

 Let us see the assumption in the Nehruvian statement. As the slide (Slide-5) shows the feedback circuit from „ science‟ to other three segments of societies and their sub elements are missing in the Indian context!

 Green revolution was possible because CS and Sivaraman with the help of many others in the states, etc., made a closure of the circuits. But consistent work in the later years slackened. 

So did Kurien, in his own inimitable style!

Post independent India saw rapid growth of science, technology and engineering institutions, colleges and universities. We saw the rise of Atomic Energy, Space and Defence Research establishments. The sprawling institutions of the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) did a remarkable work for adaptation research, local customisation and extension services to the farmers for several years starting in 1960‟s. But over a period,customisation, extension services and mass applications took back seats. The latest reports brought out by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India and Academic Foundation, New Delhi “The State of Indian Farmer” : A Millennium Study (2004)” – a 27 volume series (Reference www. list and describe several deficiencies in reaching poor and marginal farmers as well as in terms of providing cost-effective solutions to middle and richer farmers in the contemporary markets. Main reason is reported to be the much needed continual attention to the field conditions such as emergence of pesticide resistance, fall in productivity etc., - which are a part of the dynamic processes of nature. Only continual „scientific monitoring‟ can help to work out newer solutions in advance and make them available to the farmers. Similarly one can point out several such gaps in other sectors of the economy which employ a large number of Indian people.

Another major S&T establishment is the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which absorbs considerable budget from the central government. Its earning from public or private sector industry is very small. It also absorbs considerable part of extra mural research funds from the Ministry of Science and Technology and other Central Government departments.

Indian industry is still dependent on imports of technologies in direct and mostly in embodied forms (of equipment; propriety software; designs etc.,) Nor are there any major products or processes in mass use that are inventions of CSIR. A recent NISTADS report, India: Science and Technology 2008 by National Institute of Science and Technology (NISTADS), CSIR (full report available at which is an extensive survey, indicates that most of the Micro Small Medium Enterprises (MSME‟s) do not get any knowledge inputs from our S&T system or big industries. To quote the report “About 98% of MSME units in India has almost no relation with big industries or channel partners”. “………..almost the entire sector (85-86%) uses traditional knowledge in its production units, domestic R&D organisations have a megre share in provisioning knowledge, only about 5-7% of the technical knowledge transactions are with public R&D”………… They struggle and survive. Many of them close down in the global competitions (such as cheaper goods from China).

On the other end 80% of the Indian imports are by the big corporate, usually called as India Inc. see slide (Slide-6). This is a major cause of current account deficit in India‟s world trade: imports are always much more than exports. Thus, there is a near total disconnect between Indian Industry and science establishments. Ratan Tata, who normally does not speak out much, had to point out the need for oriented and relevant output from institutions like Indian Institute of Science (IISc) (Slide 7).

Often the apex bodies of S&T and other science forums like the academies only discuss about the input side to S&T such as funds, S&T expenditure as a percentage of GDP, recruitment, etc., At best for the output side, mention is made of number of publications papers or citation indexes. On patents there are some data but it is pathetic considering global standards even after twodecades of globalisation. As for the commercialisation of patents, situation is grimmer.

 When I point out these facts at a national or sectoral scale, it does not mean that there are no small islands of excellence. I am aware of a number of them. In total, they are small in national scale. Excellent work by them in S&T institutions, academic institutions, industries (big or small) and in agricultural fields. Their successes are often inspite of the system.

 Space and atomic energy have shown considerable successes. But they are yet to reach their full potentials when one considers the national needs (which include global opportunities for high tech trade and markets). Also, their spin off to other sectors of economy and educational institutions is miniscule. Some of the recent problems with respect to nuclear power are also partially indicative of the disconnects between the science system and the people of India.


„Why so?‟ will be a legitimate question. Scientific Policy Resolutions (SPR) (1958) is a beautiful document, one of the early manifestoes of science from newly liberated developing nations. It led to expansion of S&T infrastructure. But as any objective research will show, Indian science grew separately; industries grew separately and social applications grew separately. It is easy to blame the bureaucracy (favourite whipping boys and girls (?)) and the unspecified “Government‟. In reality, the political system and politicians kept full faith on the „scientists‟. They were (are) represented in many apex forums. Government and its bureaucracy created many apex bodies for the scientists, the way they asked for. They funded the projects, they asked for! In fact, this led to isolation in the cozy corners of the Indian economy and society.

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai is almost about the lone scientist-in-power who spoke against this situation as early as 1967. He points out various problems including that of S&T community and had suggested some remedial measures. For a full text covering this part, can be seen in my book “Empowering India” Chapter 1 quoted earlier. He would have had very few takers at that time, especially in the S&T community which was growing fast then. He did not live long to push his ideas through as he died very early in 1971.

Another two important set of documents are: The reports of the National Committee on Science and Technology (NCST) and Approach to Science Plan (1973) for which CS contributed with his leadership and knowledge. Had they been followed up, the „why so?‟ question would not have arisen.

What happened later is history, with mixed feelings about multitudes of missed opportunities, as we look back now. I was too young then working to build up the Indian Space Programme envisaged by Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. Itwas a great vision and challenge then to reach “Science” to people which was my guiding inspiration.

 Probably worried about some of the happenings in India and the direction it was following, CS wrote a classic “India of My Dreams” (1972), Orient Longman Limited.

There is a quote in it from him, which is an abbreviated title of this section. I had expanded on its context in my book “Empowering Indians” Chapter 1 under the section Technology Milieu for India.

CS‟s full sentence: “Work has to be productive; creation of wealth that is reproductive” (Slide 8)

It was a remarkable courage to articulate this in the then India, which was obsessed with socialist slogans of “license-permit quota-inspector raj”. It was a time when profit was equated to sin. Government expenditure was considered as a panacea for all ills, and no one cared for outcomes except for successful closure of audit and CAG reports!

The same statement was a remarkable foresight then, almost envisaging the period which was two decades ahead, post 1991 liberalisation and globalisation in India. If our government‟s societal programmes and public good programmes like „science enterprise‟ had absorbed the deep meaning of this „mantra of modernisation‟, India would have been a global leader in several fields including S&T.

If science has to serve people, it has to make them productive. It is not to be a one-shot exercise of demonstration of a possibility with government funds or somebody‟s funds. It has to lead to creation of wealth by them, which is reproductive and therefore self sustaining. Continual maintenance of this process for years to come is embedded into the statement. We tried to absorb these ideas, in our work for TIFAC and for Vision 2020 work. S&T community or others did not embrace it fully, as it meant a lot of hard work! The statement is true now. After 40 years! It is like the evolutionary process of life: survival, growth, reproduction and propagation of the species.

Let us now look at some basic principles has to how to achieve it. Normally the requirements of ordinary poor people of those, of India Inc and also of those in between will be different. Science has to serve all of them from high tech to medium tech to those relevant for marginally living population.


India is ONE. There is no doubt about it. But to flash a headline of a billion plus hearts excited or depressed is an imagery of one-size-fit-all imagination. It is far away from reality. Indian people live in different situations and locations. Their capabilities (due to their existential situations) differ drastically. “Shining India” or “Developed India” or “India Super Power” or

“India Soft Power” etc., are slogans that die, as fast as they appear. They are relevant to a small fractions of people of India. Otherwise most of the Indians are in search of productive work which alone can assure them sustainable and decent incomes. But nothing comes from mere wishes or slogans or assertive statements. Nor by the mere articulation of the potentials, through reserarched and realistic reports (as was the vision 2020 documents) or otherwise. TIFAC did some limited follow up work, with success. But the scale required for the country will require strong commitment by all govt. departments and industry.

Let us look at the slide (Slide 9) which summarises the existential realities of India. The figure in the slide has been explained in detail in a book “Charkha and Chip: Rural Industrialisation and Technology” edited by Kamal Nayan Kabra and Laxmi Dass, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi (2006) in the chapter 5 “Indias Rural Poverty and Possible Solutions” by Y S Rajan. It describes in detail how a globalisation process only depending upon imported technologies can only take care of the rich and a good part of middle class persons giving them better life. However, bulk of rural poor and slum dwellers (who are mostly migrants from rural areas) will be impoverished as they will be treated as suppliers of primary produce. Empowering and upgrading them will require many local solutions (high science as well as known science). A number of solutions to correct these asymmetries are given in that Chapter.

I am, therefore, not repeating the details here excepting to quickly describe the concepts.

In the Slide 9, the extreme right is the global forces acting developing countries (their societies, markets and technologies)

 The slide was made in 2000. It is very much valid now. As you can see in the right hand extremes, some rich Indians are globalised. Now you can see Indians listed amongst global biggies and People of India Origin (PIO) finding new comaraderie in India. Capital from India flows out. Initially, it was heralded as a great success of Indian entrepreneurship and management skills. Yes, partly it is true. For many millennia Indians were good in global trade and handling money! Till 1850, India‟s world trade was about 30% next only to that of China.

But the implications of such capital flow is the negative impact on the employment opportunities for Indians living in India. That was forgotten during the IT euphoria of mid-nineties and the early part of 21st century when reforms were on higher gear. As we move towards the left side, you see the middle class, aspiring Indians. Mostly they are urban, subsidised by the large slum dwellers who keep the cost of living down. The middle class persons though much better off than what their parents and grandparents were, have various sorts of pressures on them: most of them due to poor infrastructure (electricity, water transport etc.,) as well as the ubiquitous corruption in the governance system.

 The middle class persons who aspire to try entrepreneurship face the realities of the oppressive system of “doing business in India”. It is part of the reason why Indian technologies which might have flowered into the markets die at best in pilot projects. S&T departments/agencies, while attempting some support systems for such technologies have been operating in narrow modules of their own making. For slums, they have very little to contribute.

 Coming now to the extreme left, that is the region where most Indians live – mostly in villages. Some of them are mobile in search of wages. This is the area which is most neglected.

We now look at the arrows connecting these broad segments, rich and middle class persons have considerable knowledge linkages to deal with global market forces. In fact most of them thrive through globalisation, because they can compete in the global markets. They can collaborate with foreign companies as outsourced sub-contractors or joint partners or as employees in case of most middle-class persons. Middle class persons also get opportunities to invest in shares and feel the thrill global financial forces. Major cities are thus a part of global forces and the sprawling urban nuclei (Tier 2, tier3, tier 4 towns) provide the conduit to reach to the villages for obtaining the primary produce cheaply. The farmers and other workers (artisans etc.,) had their own subsistence level work to do. Technologies come in embodied forms as fertiliser, pesticides and some improved seeds. A few rich agricultural areas which were covered by Green Revolution, have in fact become urban nuclei, through they have lots of green fields. But most of the villages are still unreached and unserved through modern knowledge, skills and investments. 600 million Indians are without electric power. Some of the current investments in villages or tribal areas are mostly for extracting natural resources and transporting them as primary produce to urban areas or often for exporting (mere trade!). There is no attempt at serious economic value addition at village levels. Therefore most villagers do work which is “not PRODUCTIVE enough” in terms of measures used by global market forces. Their wealth is thus reduced further be it for agricultural produce or mined material. This is the phenomenon of impoveristiment of the rural people, including the middle level farmer. To say that their absolute levels of consumption is better than what it was 100 or 200 years is not a valid argument. We need to compare it with the massive consumption growth of middle and rich classes. In addition, most of the rural workers and even owners of land, cattle etc., are in the unorganised sector; so are most slum dwellers. Also many persons in middle class are in unorganised sectors with little security for the future. We have thus a huge social asymmetry in India. When it comes to knowledge and skill asymmetry, things are worse.

Only when we greatly reduce the knowledge and skill asymmetry, suited to each sector of economic and social activity, we can remove poverty. Only then, Indian people will be served by the knowledge currently with the elites and middle class persons of India. It is not a uniform one-size-fit all solution to be placed in a website or broadcast by a satellite. It is to be customised to each clusters of persons. Much of Vision 2020 follow up by TIFAC was of that


type. NAF belongs to that genre. There are several others of that type. But taken together, they are yet too small in number to make a massive transformation for India; for harnessing the true potential of science for people.

 A quick look at the next slide (Slide 10) will briefly describe the task at hand. Left side represents those who live currently with primary production or old artisanal work or micro industries, without the reach of knowledge (science) and investments. Investments without empowering them with knowledge skills will not be effective. Therefore their contribution to GDP is low and they get poor incomes. In the extreme left are persons whose GDP contribution is higher because they enjoyed the benefits of Green Revolution and other such follow up.

In the right side, the extreme right and around it a little below, represent the contributions of those who work with modern businesses and industries such as high tech manufacturing, ICT, financial services, govt., etc., They deal with higher and higher knowledge of global standards. They add more economic value; earn more. One cannot build a society with only the left and right extremes “taking off” with more and more investments-govt, private or foreign. The challenge is to lift the bath tub curve, higher and higher. It is possible only when we, as a nation, create facilitating mechanisms by orienting S&T policies to suit the demands modern globalising economy. While doing so we should also realise realities of the historically left over large segments of our population as described in the earlier slide of globalisation network.

On the one side we need to spur high technology industries (as in the right side of the bath tub). They will increase national wealth manifold and give the nation a strategic leadership in the world.

Then to suit the huge middle of the poverty zone we need a whole new set of flexible mechanisms that do not exist even now after more than six decades of independence. We need to also help the left extreme side with high value primary production: high value agriculture, high value mining, forestry, use of biotechnology for tapping primary resources.

Those in the poverty zone will get the advantage of the double pull of left and right side (which are „spill overs‟ or trickle down) but more importantly special lift of the whole region by judicious inputs of „science‟ is to be attended to specially. I find Mahatma Gandhi more and more relevant when it comes to addressing real life problems of Indian people. His insights are so remarkable. It is a pity that we have not captured them and creatively evolved with progress of science and economics. 

The changes required for the S&T policy is not more of the same. „Science‟ funding in India has grown without proper economic and social audit. It is done by the sheer faith of SPR statement and the awe with which political system and public sees the scientists.

 In response to a request by V.S. Jafa, a former Secretary to Government of India, who was editing a book on liberalisation, I wrote a chapter on “S&T policies at the time of liberalisation”. (Reference: Liberalisation in India, The Road Ahead, Ed by V S Jafa (2001) New Century Publications, Delhi, India, Chapter 6). 

In view of its importance it was also reproduced in my book “Empowering Indians” as Chapter 5 under the title “Policies for Science and Technology in the era of liberalisation”. That chapter provides a holistic view of S&T in the national, economic, social and global context. We had emphasized based on detailed study of S&T policies of other countries, the need for Employment as the top of five priorities listed for S&T policy orientation. The five priorities are:

 (i) Need for Employment

(ii) Improving Quality of Life of People

(iii) Vitality of the Economy: Wealth, Creation, Trade and Technology

(iv) National Security and

(v) Human Resources for S&T.

It further discusses the complex connections and arrive at the contours of the S&T policies. What is told there, is valid even now after a decade and will remain so far quite some time.

Therefore I do not repeat them here and request that august persons in the audience to study it when they can.

 I would only elaborate on what is required to be done for the poverty zone, which was the great concern of CS in his later years. 


 As I had briefly mentioned earlier, during my discussions with CS for NAF and follow up actions, he often came to the topic of having „Science Referral Centres‟ to be available all over India. It has to be near people – may be at least one per district, if not more. His idea was that any person in the local area; farmers, smiths, cobblers, micro industry persons, artisans, college educated persons with ideas for action or entrepreneurship; or big/medium industrialist or administrators or healthcare, sanitation service providers etc., should be able to refer their perceived problems or hopeful expectations to a centre. The small team in the centre which is reasonably knowledgeable to deal with issues, should be able to reach out to other referral Centres or experts and give the right lead for those who referred to them in the first instant, very soon. Then the actions are to be between those who referred and the experts. The Centre will not be intrusive, but keep track of progress between them with a view to learn more and serve better in future.

Through the experience of nationwide work of TIFAC (1988-2002) for Home Grown Technologies, Technology Missions, TIFAC Centres of Relevance and Excellence (TIFAC-CORE‟s) and Vision 2020 follow up actions as well as through reading several experience based books and articles about stimulating socio-economic development, I had also arrived at the need for such centres, at least at the district levels – not necessarily at District Headquarter Offices, but somewhere where access is good, perhaps in an Engineering College or Science College or a Management Institution, but funded by the central/state government.

ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) connections would make these 600 odd centres as vibrant nodes of enabling people to make friends with science. But the actions cannot be abdicated to a portal or a data base or online interaction. Much as I would have liked to pursue establishment of these Centres, I could do not do so because of the attitudes of S&T powers-that-be. A standard question by them is: “What is science in it?” Such centres cannot survive without public (Govt) funds, not just for 2-3 yeas but for a decade or more, because Indian people‟s accumulated problems are over several centuries. We should not expect the poor and marginally living people to pay for the knowledge services. It is a public good, much as we need not support basic research as public good.

A good theoretical foundation about activities similar to such referral centres was given by Prof. N S Siddharthan, then Professor at the Institute of Economic Growth (IEG) at Delhi University Enclave. Currently he is an Honorary Professor of Economics, Madras School of Economics and Honorary Director, Forum for Global Knowledge Sharing

Our joint research work of about three years resulted in a book “Global Business, Technology and Knowledge Sharing: Lessons for Developing Country Enterprises” by N.S. Siddharthan and Y.S. Rajan published by Mac Millan India Ltd (2002).

While critically reviewing many case studies from TIFAC, Prof. Siddharthan said, “Rajan, what you people at TIFAC are doing, is Technology Intermediation (TI)”. We developed the idea further and you will find them in two chapters of the referred book. Later we found TI is useful in developed countries as well, it is a knowledge industry.

 To give a brief idea about TI, please see slide (Slide 11). When non technical persons (farmer, business persons etc.,) approach an issue they are interested as illustrated, in the lower part of the axis they face lots of uncertainties. The technical (scientific) persons similarly as in the upper half face the whole range of technological uncertainties to be resolved. If these two groups are not put through the funnel of their uncertainties, they will never realise their common end goal. Unfortunately, in the modern economy and society, they have to work together.

The whole process of TI or Science Referral is nothing but enabling and facilitating them to go through the funnel to reach the goal of economic or business or social benefit. Time in the X-axis can be a few months or few years or several years. The process is same.


I have been all my life inspired by Subramanya Bharati. His remarkable imageries about the use of „science‟ for building up India are covered in many songs written around 1910‟s. A notable melodius song is “Bharata Desam”, popularly remembered from the stanza “Vellippanimalaiyin”. Twelve stanzas are full of items ranging from shipping to mining to interconnection of rivers to remote telecommunications to moon exploration to street cleaning technologies. I won‟t say it here. You may recall them. But I wish to an other quote from him: He says “Payan varum chaihaiye aramaam” “The actions which give useful and beneficial results is DHARMA” As I had mentioned earlier, Chennai has gifted persons in almost all disciplines from arts, humanities, sciences to administration covered in it with experienced people, active professionals and young students. In addition to IIT Madras, you have 100 odd higher educational institutions in Arts, Science, Commerce, Engineering, Law etc., there are so many special forums and foundations. There are excellent industrialists and business persons with broad minds.

 I have been all my life inspired by Subramanya Bharati. His remarkable imageries about the use of „science‟ for building up India are covered in many songs written around 1910‟s. A notable melodius song is “Bharata Desam”, popularly remembered from the stanza “Vellippanimalaiyin”. Twelve stanzas are full of items ranging from shipping to mining to interconnection of rivers to remote telecommunications to moon exploration to street cleaning technologies. I won‟t say it here. You may recall them. But I wish to an other quote from him: He says “Payan varum chaihaiye aramaam” “The actions which give useful and beneficial results is DHARMA” As I had mentioned earlier, Chennai has gifted persons in almost all disciplines from arts, humanities, sciences to administration covered in it with experienced people, active professionals and young students. In addition to IIT Madras, you have 100 odd higher educational institutions in Arts, Science, Commerce, Engineering, Law etc., there are so many special forums and foundations. There are excellent industrialists and business persons with broad minds. 

My appeal to you all (including those who are not here) is: why don‟t you all commit and start Science Referral Centres which will do Knowledge and Technology Intermediation functions bringing “Science” to people in Tamil Nadu?

It can set a trend setter for whole of India. CS will be happy and bless us.

This exercise is not just that of scientists, technologists economists, administrators, managers etc., 

You can rope in the artists, musicians, film stars, public figures, politicians etc., into it, as a movement to awaken people to use science for their benefit.

 We need not just stop at: “Kolaiveridi”

The new songs can be: “Nam Makkal Vaazhvudi Vignana vazhidi”

 Thank you. 

Twenty First Century Mission : Living with Nature in the Modern Form

Twenty First Century Mission : Living with Nature in the Modern Form

Appeared in KISAN WORLD May 2011 Vol 38 No.5



Last month (April 2011) we addressed several simple technologies needed for the basics of agriculture. By now our readers are familiar with the fact that most technologies howsoever simple they look as a end product in consumer’s hands, are actually a confluence of several technologies. Some of them may be simple coming to us over centuries and some of them may be very complex and of recent origin.

To make a satellite is very difficult; more so to launch it but the satellite based communications like telephones, mobiles or TV are so simple to operate. Many sophisticated medicines are a result of high science and high technology. But when the users have them, they are easy to consume; even dosages are usually small and nowadays one dose lasts for 24 hours or more.

Some of the drip irrigation systems or water pollution monitoring technologies are high tech in origin. So also some advanced pesticides . Herbal derived supplements be it aloe vera or others used for facial radiation cover or as diet supplements, equally need high technologies in their manufacture. Purifying them form other naturally or process wise coproduced impurity (or toxic) elements require high science and high technology.

No one can dispute the historical fact that it is the application of high yielding varieties of seeds, use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides which saved the population all around from terrible famines. If these technologies had not been adopted (as also the pharmaceutical products like antibiotics, immunisation medicines etc used to eradicate diseases or reduce morbidity) human population would have had a “natural” (?!!) control as it was in the past many centuries, still close to 2 billion.


Not only in India, but all around the developing world, populations have grown many fold. All are getting reasonable access to food (though we need to go a long way to assume food security as we conceive now and were never able to conceive in the past except in fertile imagination of poets and artists!)

The current populations in the developed world have stabilised. They had started the use of these technologies during the 19th and twentieth centuries, and it made them powerful in global trade and military. They had colonised many parts of the world. They had also expanded from the original habitats of Europe to several new continents. They grew more in number and also became prosperous. Then they worked to conceive the prosperity. They have lower population growth now. It helps them to maintain their high standards of living.

The current story of the developing countries is approximately equivalent to what these countries were during the early twentieth century. But they (developing countries) do not have any colonies to exploit. Modern agricultural technologies including medicines have advanced so much that populations in these developing countries keep on growing. Even with a one – child norm China’s population is high.

Of course there is definitely a case for stepped up family planning and population control measures. But that alone will not suffice in the short and medium run. The demands of the increasing populations and more importantly the growing perception of equity will require more and more supply of food, energy, water, medicines, etc to increasingly higher standards of quality and much greater expectations of reliability and safety. Human beings would also demand large number of animals, birds, fishes etc as food as well as pets. Concern for environment will need creating more forests, greenery, and greater attention to pollution control methods.

The technologies developed around the ‘green revolution period’ and improved later many times more, are no longer adequate to meet these demands. We are all aware of the problems of productivity and soil conditions in rice – wheat high out put areas like Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Andhra Pradesh. More and more energy inputs, fertilizer, pesticide usage etc are making their agriculture uneconomical. Also there are real problems of pollution of water, soil, and produce.

Organic alternatives though romantically very attractive are yet poor in terms of productivity and yields. Only in a few select niche markets (supported mostly by the fads and fashions of the affluent) they are profitable.

Indian farming community as a whole cannot be made prosperous with organic alternatives alone. Marginal and small farmers would currently require water, fertilizer, high yielding seeds, other chemical micronutrients, and pesticides to produce to an extent when he can make profit.

But as we have noted, such an extension of earlier technologies alone are not enough to save soils and to have a long term sustainability.

There is a new technology which has emerged world wide and has a potential to solve many of the current problems. That is BIOTECHNOLOGY.


Basic researches in biotechnology and its small scale applications have emerged about half a century before.  Now there are a few persons who were / are advocating it as a panacea and one – stop solution for most agricultural and environmental problems. On the other hand there is a vocal group which paints it with darkest of brushes. They present it as if man has started interfering with nature for the first time.

Let us again remind ourselves that cross breeding and genetic manipulation of plants, birds and animals have been done by the civilisationally progressing human beings for over a few millennia: The rice or wheat we eat now (even before the high yielding varieties came into large scale operation, are not the same as they existed say 10,000 or 20,000 years ago. Genetic manipulation of plants was a great art and science of plant breeders. There were also many great breeders of special dogs or horses or cows or birds etc. Grafting of tress was a fine art and science.

As the human knowledge expanded, human kind also started knowing more about atoms and therefore of making better materials and chemicals. Similarly in the biological world advances in the scientific and technological knowledge about the cells (basic building blocks of plants, animal etc) and the finer constituents of the cells, led to more efficient manipulation of cells and molecules to produce new varieties efficiently. In turn, they learn more about the impact of changes in genes, the basic units which carry biological information about the various qualitative and quantitative features of the big biological unit – of plant, human body etc. Genes decide weight, resistance to diseases, colour, - almost every parameter of significance to life and performance.

So if we can work at the cellular and genetic levels (that is, take from one living being and place it on the other etc.), we can get the characteristics of the total plant, animal etc altered to meet our performance goals. It is the same thing as the cross breeding but is done at a basic level and more efficiently. Therefore it is more effective and more reliable in output than mere cross breeding. After all, a greater knowledge of scientific aspects leads to better efficiency and reliability in all fields of mechanical, civil, chemical, nuclear etc, engineering. That applies to biological field too.. That is biotechnology: working at cellular and molecular level to cross couple between one organism to another to obtain the desired properties; High level of scientific knowledge is used here.

Is it without any risks?

Everything in nature is full of risks. There are many risks endemic around us and they are not visible to us. Earthquake, cyclones, landslides, forest fires, floods etc or a sudden outbreak of an epidemic or for that an aircraft accident. We know where natural disasters occur frequently. But we cannot for sure say that this particular place on earth is free from all disasters or diseases!!

That apart, in nature things keeps on mutating (changing). Over several thousands of years, totally new forms can appear. The changed forms were not without their its dangers or risks just because nature did it. About 95% of species which evolved naturally, no longer exist now. Nature is ruthless for its own creations!

Unlike the usual natural forms of evolutionary changes or the earlier (pre – biotech) man made breeding changes, biotechnology processes are very fast and can be made in the laboratories and transferred to the nature. No doubt hundreds of tests are done to have a high degree of confidence so that undesirable features have not been inherited through these changes. But there could be some totally unforeseen undesirable after effects which may manifest later, after several decades or centuries, as these new organisms evolve in nature.

But to cite this as the cause for stopping biotechnology derived products for agriculture, environmental protection, removal of many toxic or non toxic industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes, or to have faster growth etc (as biotechnology offers many new avenues) is irrational and denies the opportunities for millions of poor persons to realise some reasonable prosperity.

As per published reports global biotech crop planting has already jumped by 10% during 2010. Now it has reached a milestone of about 1 billion hectares of land. As per the documents of ISAAA (International Service for the Application of Agri – biotech Applications) (taken from an article dated Feb 22, 2011 by Larry Dignan in Smart Planet)

v 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries have planted biotech crops.

v Of these farmers 14.4 million are considered to be small scale

v 1 Billion hectare land mark (cumulative) has been achieved in 15 years of commercialisation.

v The four largest biotech crops are maize, soya been, cotton and canola

v Current global biotech plantings are now 148 million hectares.

v Biotech crops cover 59% of the world population.

US has 66.8 million biotech hectares in production, followed by Brazil at 25.4 million, Argentina 33.9 million, India 9.4 million, Canada 8.8 million and China 3.5 million. US has many crops like maize, soya been, cotton, sugar beet, alfalfa, papaya; China has cotton, papaya, poplar, tomato, sweet pepper. India has only cotton. European countries have very limited usage: less than 0.1 million in potato and maize.

Global activism against biotech crops comes mostly from European sources. Cotton farmers in India have gained considerably by the use of biotech crops. Still govt. facilitation can make it better. More importantly if India can adopt biotech maize, papaya and horticultural products, all Indian farmers will gain. Biotech seeds are costlier due to high tech processes. But they can give better performance in yields and / or pest resistance; even dought resistance if specially engineered. Govt can help poor and marginal farmers financially to begin with. Over a period rain dependence can be greatly reduced by the use of right biotech crops.

While safety precautions during tests, trials and initial deployment are essential, raising irrational cries and mass hysteria against biotech crops, will only slow down considerably the march of Indian farmers (and therefore of Indian people) towards prosperity.

Biotech can help the farmers as a useful addition to their tools. It can also help recover many green revolution lands which are now flogged to their limits. If supported well biotechnology can also remove many toxic wastes through special bacteria and help grow forest saplings faster.  Biotechnology can also hep preserve and nurture many genetic resources which have displaced by the commercial considerations of modern agriculture. This technology gives a new window of opportunity for Indians who have missed many before due to irrational paranoia or sheer inertia. Let us not miss it now. Let us adopt it before it is too late. Many countries are moving fast.

Let us therefore be sober and not lag behind many countries and people who have made friends with biotech crops.






Twenty First Century Mission : Living with Nature in the Modern Form TECHNOLOGY for CONSERVATION, DIVERSIFICATION and GROWTH

Twenty First Century Mission : Living with Nature in the Modern Form TECHNOLOGY for CONSERVATION, DIVERSIFICATION and GROWTH

Appeared in KISAN WORLD April 2011 Vol 38 No.4

We had a quick review of how to mount a mission for water access for agriculture of the bulky base of Indian agriculture (in terms of the number of persons dependent upon agriculture, though the yield and productivity of these lands are marginal). The mission is aimed at reaching water at the right time and right quantities to the fields of the farmers so that their agricultural yields will be better.

As we had pointed out right from the beginning of the series, “one – parameter” approach would not suffice. Multiple parameters would need to be tackled simultaneously, for conservation of the natural resources, diversification of the produce and income earning opportunities as well as for enabling continual growth.

Agriculture in India (and therefore the income of the  farmers) has been growing at a very slow rate over the past three decades, even while population and consumption styles and standards are growing rapidly. Solutions for faster agricultural growth ad larger incomes can come from technologies. No doubt again govt. policy and implementation are crucial.

Before addressing them in some detail, let us quickly review the situation about the management of water resources for the upper strata of irrigated agriculture.


Even amongst the irrigated lands there are a number of different categories. Top amongst them are fed by major irrigation systems, that is huge dams with extensive canal systems. Among the medium and minor irrigation systems will fall various forms of lakes, ponds, ground water based minor irrigation etc.

Amongst these also there are variations such as those dependent on old traditional forms and those with modern engineered storage and delivery systems.

Again these systems vary in different parts of India and there are large variations even within the states. Those interested in having some deeper view of agricultural water resources management of whole of India may read volume 3 of the State of the Farmer (A millennium study) Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. Its title is Water Resources.

As of new the farmers reached by major irrigation systems (mostly the Green Revolution arrears”) have the benefit of best forms of govt. support in terms continues water availability, energy sources (electricity and diesel), agricultural inputs and marketing channels. They have full benefit of minimum support price.

The farmers of these regions were the early entrepreneurs who took to the new technologies and transformed the face of agriculture in India. Severe food seracity which led to “ship – to – mouth” existence in most of urban centres of India, has become the thing of the past thanks to these early Green Revolution farmers. It is on the basis of food (rice and wheat) supply stability built by them, the industrial growth of India took place ushering India to the modern economy “(along with it new chain of govt. hospitals, higher education system etc).

But those farmers were not given adequate further guidance and policy support in the later years of Green Revolution when soil salinity, soil nutrient depletion etc started appearing in their fields. The only solution they could resort to was use of more and more fertiliser and pesticides. Increased input costs started showing up in the poor profitability of the rice – wheat agriculture. The farmers started diversifying into animal husbandry, dairying, poultry etc.

The problem is not with the basic concepts and early implementation of green revolution. There are literally thousands of researched studies and committee reports giving the solutions to the problems. Simple, truth is that systems dealing with Nature require continued innovations as they are complex adaptive systems. There is no one – time solution in Nature! But the policy makers and implementers pay little attention to these simple laws of Nature!

Excessive water use and the use of large quantities of chemicals continuously year round continue to flog the soils. The technological solutions are not going back to the 1950’s of these areas which was predominantly dry land agriculture. Those areas now require modern water minimising technologies, various new soil reclamation and conservation technologies and also use of biotechnologically derived seeds and other diversified crops – which can give profitable diversification of incomes.

Some load of providing rice and wheat to the whole country should now onwards be borne by the eastern region of India. This aspect is dealt with in some detail in the book India Vision 2020 by Dr.A.P.J.Abdul kalam and Y.S.Rajan. The ideas given there in are based on the work of the group led by the late Prof. S.K.Sinha. He guided the TIFAC team on Agriculture (


Yes, the green revolution areas covered by major irrigation systems require a fairly large scale injection of new water recycling and water minimising technologies (not only in engineering terms but also through agronomic practices, diversification to crops or plants which can yield better income produce, even for exports). Let the region not be measured by the present out put of rice and wheat alone. They may reduced these and master other appropriate crops or plants. But this transition requires a carefully crafted policy support and implementation which will be much more complex the green revolution.

Newer forms of subsidies (the forms of initial demonstration grants, later part – support etc) need to be evolved and implemented to incentivise  farmers to change. It is also important to take into confidence the people concerned. The newer forms of vested interests in the country including from global players through various forms of activism would also require attention. Again technologies can help to reach knowledge to people and to assimilate their ideas.

The areas covered by the medium and minor irrigation systems are more difficult to handle as the varieties in them are many hundreds and are locale specific. Generalised one – shoe – fit – all solutions will fail. This is where Delhi based policy statements and criteria laid by central and state level administrators (albeit through the reports of national or state committee of experts) alone will not suffice. The systems would require flexibilities even at a taluk level. With the availabilities of modern IT systems it should not be difficult to administer, if the basic mindsets are changed.

The agricultural initiatives announced under various heads by the Union Finance Minister in his budget speech in February 2011 are relevant especially in terms of the details though of course, the allocation of     Rs.300 Crores is a pittance. I hope that instead of frittering the meagre funds away, they could be used to define specific locale – specific practical solutions for each location with the involvement of local community. These solution can be used to give new directions to channelise the govt. funds which are now being frittered in “one – parameter” models which do not build local capacities and sustainable income – solutions for the farmers and agricultural workers.

Such solutions can be used to make the available water systems “abundant” (even in minor irrigation areas) in the actual sense and to provide good income generating and sustainable yields. These solution packages should also include training for those who would like to move away from agriculture as it is also important to relieve the dependence – pressure on Indian agriculture. (we need to bring down the number of persons dependent upon land drastically over the next 15 to 20 years).


Even while dealing with the agricultural water resources in irrigated areas, we have touched upon various aspects of technologies needed to help the farmers in these regions to transition into a sustainable agricultural water resource management regime. The water which they save, will also be used for the growth of industries, services and residential areas in these regions, thus leading to a better quality of life.

We have so far dealt with all segments of Indian agriculture in terms of some glimpses modern approaches needed in the new century for agricultural water resources and how to transition to new water management system.

While water is vital for agriculture (plants, animals, birds and fishes), that alone will not be enough to lead to agricultural prosperity of the farmers, farm workers and the country as a whole.

It is necessary to deploy various technologies right from the input side, the process of agronomy, to marketing and value addition. While many of these will require special treatment as a separate article for each, let us attempt an overview now.

         These may be listed as under:

(We have adapted some of these from volume 10 Rain fed Agriculture – of the state of farmer series).

Ø Irrigation and water shed management related technologies.

Ø Innovation in drip and sprinkler systems to spread to more crops. Currently they are cost effective only in plants having large spacing. Also there is a need to reduce cost of production and installation even by reducing some better features in order to affordable by small and marginal farmers.

Ø High yield technologies : Besides use of better seeds it is also necessary to reduce inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides by optimising dosages and timing. This will require soil testing of all fields (through govt. supported soil testing units) and providing scientific prescriptions by practical experts to the farmers about the right nutrient mix for specific crops. TIFAC’s experience in Bihar and other places as well by the work of National Agro Foundation set up by the late C. Subramanian are good examples. Mobile soil testing vans available all over India will help a great deal in helping farmers to optimise inputs.

Ø The above require a close interactive working with the farmers. In addition to direct extension services, TV, IT, DVD, CD internet etc can help. (one – shoe – fit all type programmes should be avoided!). Result demonstrations at various locations in the actual farmer working conditions are crucial. The other e-systems to be only supportive and should not take away bulk of the funds!!

Ø Seeds :  Rigid and fool proof quality control systems right from seed production up to distribution is a must to safeguard farmers. Presently the govt. systems are weak; private systems vary from the best to the worst. If necessary policy measures to introduce modern corporate systems will be useful. Price management should be pragmatic and not populist or dogmatic.

Ø Intensive extension programmes for enhancing fertilizers use in rain fed areas is important to improve yield. Soil test results will help to optimise use of NPK with other nutrients. (See mobile can idea.)

Ø Selective use of other non – chemical fertilizers may also be propagated. (Please note that chemical fertilizers cannot be avoided!)

Ø In this context innovation in fertilizer production to have a large number of small units distributed all over the agricultural regions is required. This was the dream of C.C.Shroff, founder of Excel Industries. Indians should innovate so that fertilizer transport costs can come down.

Ø Plant protection technologies are crucial. Pesticides cannot be avoided. But by better selection and field training actual use can be minimised. Also ‘pest alert systems’ may be developed through use of modern remote sensing and ICT technologies. Govt. systems should be ready to rush to right areas in right time when there is a pest attack.

Ø Produce handling technologies from harvesting to storing to packaging to delivery in order to be helpful to farmers to get better price and in time. With proper policy and financial support systems, corporate sector can play a very good role.

Ø Biotechnology plays a major role. We will address it later in the series.


We have not addressed all technology elements in the above. But he glimpses were meant to highlight the crucial role of technologies as well as policy business support systems.

One cautions: while technologies and (business) organisation systems are crucial (as also govt. policy and fund support), they also tend to increase inequities, if proper education and training are not imparted to all segments of the society. Therefore careful attention have to be given right from the beginning.

But to keep away the use of technologies by people (farmers) means keeping them away from prosperity.

Can 2011 mark a decade of new resolve for all of us?