Articles

EARLY VIEWS OF Y.S.RAJAN ON LIFE Y. S. Rajan

 

Y.S.Rajan (Y.Sundararajan) had been since the age of 10 engaged in studies that help understanding life, society, country etc. Initial inspirer was the great Indian national poet, Subramanya Bharati through his Tamil songs. When YSR came to Bombay in 1957 (his 13 years of age), his learning expanded to almost all books in English – Swami Vivekananda Science books, Marx, Nehru, Aldons Huxley, Swami Sivananda, Aerobindo…… many more beyond school and college books. Also lots of observations of Bombay life – industry, slums, people, political activities etc. But his writings during this period 1957 – 1964 are very minimal….

One piece from a diary when he was just under 14 years is as follows :

Quote :

  I think God has given us the body with very good idea – to show us the importance of this world and that of spirit.

  Without this material body, the spirit cannot exist and in the same way without the spirit, this body cannot live. It will rot away and would be gone.

  This has got a very great significance– that which is given in ISHA Upanishd :  â€œTo darkness are they doomed who devote themselves only to the life in the world and to a greater darkness who devote themselves only to meditation…..To darkness are they doomed who worship only the spirit --- They who worship both the body and the spirit by the body overcome death, and by the spirit achieve immortality.”

  With the beautiful example of body and soul Mother has shown us how to life. “We must not leave material things as sinful nor should we leave spiritual things as a thing to be practised by some in the forest. Both are necessary. Both are interdependent (if at all a man wants a integral development of his personality.) With one things man cannot hope to become perfect. If one thing is left, other thing cannot exist; it would perish.  

  If soul leaves, body collapses; when body is not there soul cannot feely exist and evolve. It has to evolve while in the body.

  I ask “Mothers” to give me both material and spiritual things, which I need. Mothers have fully taught me that material things are also necessary to have spiritual growth. Both must be balanced and there must be a dynamic equilibrium between the two. The golden medium is the easy path.

  ‘Whatever you do, dedicate to Krishna, and Mothers with full spirit – That is the path THEY have shown me.

  That is the only way which we can practise very easily in this age where we have to be very busy earning our livelihood and almost reduced to machines in our daily life. This is the best path I have been shown. This won’t conflict in any way with our modern life.

21/1/1960

Y.Sundararajan

Unquote”

India's Demographic Dilemma - write up [Power Point presentation]

 

Most Indians are proud of the fact we are a young nation with 54% of the 1 Billion plus popular 25 years & under. There are so many projections of future that are made with this fact. “ India will be or is the Global Human Resources Capital” etc.

A huge young population is a great Resource and also can be a Curse, if not tended well. This presentation in View Graph (Power Point) form tells the story in a visual form.

Slide – 1 : Emphasize the need for Actions.

Slide – 2 : It is 2005 AD. Take if you want 2007 AD Picture is the same.

What is the approximate number of Children in each age – group ? This is the number of age – cohorts in 1 years, ….. 3 years, …. 5 years….. 25 years etc. When I have asked this in many forums – comprising either young school children or B.Tech students or Executive MBA class students or well informed adult persons – I get strange answers – from a few lakhs to 100 million ! Some think in percentage, say 30% etc (of what ??).

Well Slide – 2 shows what it is approximately i.e approximately 20 million for each age.

Slide –3 : India is a long train pulled by steam engine yet slow and puffing (if has to become a powerful electric engine with 10 to 12% GDP growth rate in order to compensate for the show motions of the past several decades !)

Slide – 4 : Each young age group is a bogie of 20 million each bogie. May be up to age 30 each bogie will be so ! Higher age groups will be less than that ! Due to longevity the old age bogies won’t get emptied easily ! Most Indians who pass 40 will easily go to 80 + !

So let us see what it will be in 2015 A.D. The story will repeat; the 20 million each bogie will go to 30 years plus more !

Goes on to 70 to 80 years bogies !

What are the solutions to the questions ???

Slide – 5 : Don’t jump at population control. Dictational control is not possible. People’s decisions on birth of children have an interesting logic or rationale. Young people will also marry and have children.

Young India therefore will produce children. Even with one child a couple (voluntarily), some two, still the bogies will be full. Demographic transition (zero growth) possible only by 2050 AD.

Slide – 6 : It is self-explanatory.

Slide – 7 : All our great claims about IIT’s, excellence etc are without seeing numbers. IIT’s, BITS Pilani etc cover only a small miniscule part of the youth.

Taking all those who get into MBBS, B.E., B.Pharma, MBA, Architecture, CA, IAS and all such reasonably well paying studies only about 1.5 – 2% of the 20 million get such opportunties. (Some “high brow” Indians will call many of them to be products of “mush room” institutions ! But these persons power the knowledge economy in India and USA.) The large number of persons abroad are from this lot.

Next below about 8% is all forms of higher education – B.A. in Indian Languages, Hindi, Tamil, Marathi etc., B.A. History, Philosophy etc. B.Com, B.Sc. etc i.e. 3 – 4 years of 10 + 2 including diplomas.

Actually unemployed amongst the category is very high because the knowledge & skills given to them do not fit into the requirements of modern economy. They are the products of old ossified syllabus and teaching systems standardised by UGC and such central institutions, though lots of exciting talks take place about modernisation, vocationalisation, quality etc !

Come below.

20% Either some 10 + 2, 10 + pass fail etc.

70% never reach 10 even to appear and fail.

So bottom 90% are God’s children, left to fund themselves. They don’t enter unemployment statistics obtained through the employment exchanges – as they have to survive marketing their physical skill – limbs, head body etc – the so-called unskilled labour.

(Those keen to look into details of statistics, the educational system etc may see my book “Choosing Career Paths”). Just 5 + 8 pass etc are just useless for the modern economy – they can be “gardners”, maid servants etc.

Slide – 8 : Re-emphasize the above reality.

Don’t get carried away by slogans of universal literacy. It may be good statistics – but does not help the individual to lift her / his economic status (therefore social status).

Slide – 9 : Poses questions. Answer it for yourselves ! Search your conscience.

Slide - 10 : See some more starker statements.

Are we a great place of Human Capital ?

Slide - 11 : It is applicable in 2007 also !

What are the answers ?

Be truthful !

Slide – 12 : Yes there is hope. In the short term give to the bottom 90% and also to most of 8% give modern skills.

Massive programme Domestically RELEVANT.Globally.

Since the country with its present 7 – 8% growth and due to sectoral mix (which has now less of manufacturing & agro-processing), cannot absorb all of them, in organised sector.

Many may have to go abroad.

Therefore let the skills be certified by agencies which have CREDIBILITY internationally (be it for a plumber or carpenter or hair stylist or a construction workers ……)

In addition, small micro-macro credits  Rs. 5000 to 10,000 or so be given freely to such qualified persons so that they can set up their own jobs as repairers, qualified maid servants, specialised cooks etc.

Slide 13 : It is not enough to leave them at that.

90% without higher education is not acceptable in a modern knowledge economy.

World experience shows that higher incomes are directly proportional to higher education.

Therefore liberalise higher education so that many more can get relevant higher education even though they may spend initial years earning through skilled jobs.

Slide 14 : Is the vision (very realistic) for all Indians.

Not just India – for Indians !.

All of us have to fight for it by removing oppressive Govt. controls and work for it.

If youth of India have to be the wealth of India,

they have to be empowered with right knowledge & skills

as a continual learning process.

 

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Key Words : Indian demography, human resources; human capital; skills; Indian youth; Knowledge economy; Indian education system.

 

 

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India The New Opportunities [Power Point presentation]

By

Y.S. Rajan

 

1. This presentation was made at the Manipal University in the context of India – Kuwait Roundtable held on 15-16 January 2007.

2. The paper aims at exploring the new opportunities opening up in India and to identify a few areas in which India – Kuwait cooperation (includes commercial/business activities as well) can take a new direction.

3. Slide – 1 is just the title and the context of the talk.

4. Slide – 2 presents the key features of the Indian Economy. Sustainable and robust GDP growth and continuing economic reforms are presenting new opportunities. Indian economy is no longer closed and there is a large amount of externalisation. Some of these data are presented in the next few slides.

5. Slide – 3 Data on Indian Economy 2005-2007.

6. Slide – 4 is the desegregation of growth  in terms of sectors and years (Slides 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 are taken from CII sources, such as its websites, India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) documents, etc.)

7. Slide – 5 shows the shift of the Indian economy say from 1990-91 and 2005-06. There is a remarkable shift towards the services sector. However, this does not mean that Agriculture & Manufacturing are fading away. On the contrary, the economy is shaking out its inefficiencies. For example even while Agriculture may remain at 20% or may increase to 25% (most likely hover around 20%) of the overall GDP, there will be lots of efforts in increasing the yield, productivities and efficiencies in the use of the natural resources (water, energy, fertiliser, marine etc). [Agriculture mentioned here includes other primary productive items like cattle, fisheries etc]. There will be demands for value addition and emphasis on phytosanitary conditions and concern for environmental impact.

8. Thus Indian Agriculture will be lifting itself to absorb much higher levels of science and technology inputs. Investments in water management, energy sources and other infrastructure to assure phytosanitarty conditions, will be on the rise. Improved equipment, testing systems (soil, chemical, biological etc.) will be introduced in the primary agriculture, dairy, meat industry, poultry fishing etc. There are many business opportunities in this sector – mostly adaptation of known science and available technologies in the Indian context. Perhaps a large manufacturing of these equipment infrastructure items may be a big opportunity.

9. As a corollary to the increasing value addition, technology levels and investment, it will be necessary to grow a Agro-Food Processing sector much beyond the present levels of its being primarily in the cottage industry status. While a few major high end plants are welcome, noting the distributed nature of agriculture, milk etc., production and with a need to spread employment all around the country, high-tech but small volume Agro Processing units have to come around village clusters and Tier 3 towns in India. These units can be under big corporates as a part of their chains. Technically these units will not be called Agriculture in economic classification and appear in Manufacturing. But this sector will be a great business opportunities in the coming decade.

10. Of course now coming to Indian Manufacturing Sector, it is in its great renaissance period. Many existing units are upgrading themselves with new equipment, so much so that capital goods (mother of manufacturing) sector is growing at about 34%. Now about 2/3rd of CNC machines are imported. So with many capital goods for other industries, Construction Industry demands a large amount of new mechanised and articulated equipment. There is a large such list not to mention the automobile sector.

(Kuwaiti joint ventures or fully Kuwaiti companies can take advantage of these opportunities).

11. Services sectors will have mind boggling developments from tourism, hospitality, media, financial services, IT, ITES, BPO, KPO etc to many other creative industries. (Kuwaiti companies can try to have many joint ventures in India to serve a global market).

12. Slide – 6 indicates FDI and FII investments into India. They are growing Investors getting good returns.

13. Slide – 7 The story does not just end in the above. Indian companies are so buoyant and confident that they invest abroad as well in a steadily increasing way. During 2005-06 outward FDI from India equaled the inward FDI.

14. Slide – 8 To be balanced in understanding India, one cannot stop in the above. While numbers will look big since India is a large country, when reduced to per capita numbers, Indian figures have problems. The reason to understand it is not only to solve India’s problems but also to find new business opportunities in that process.

15. Slide – 9 & Slide – 10 have appeared in a number of places in YSR’s writings and presentations. They are crucial to understand Indian economy and society. Hence we will be giving brief here.

      Slide 9  shows that benefits of globalisation are not uniform. The two red arrows show the problem areas : URBAN SLUMS, and POORLY CONNECTED VILLAGE  which are not being given investment, knowledge and skills. They suffer from low productive agriculture, low value artisan products etc.

      Slide 10 presents in a different form and identifies the poverty zone (in which the people are trapped in low knowledge – skill – low – productivity syndrome. To raise them to higher level is the whole challenge of India’s development. At least 2/3rd of the population is in the syndrome or close to it. To unleash them creates new opportunities.

16. Slides 11, 12, 13, 14 show the high end HUMAN CAPITAL of India – fairly large investment by Govt. in S&T.

15.  Slide – 15 describes the Demographic Dilemma. See this in the website (www.ysrajan.com) while the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in Higher Education is currently around 7 to 8% it needs to increase to 40%. There is a plenty of scope for private actors (including foreign ones).

16. Slide – 16 shows some Higher Education statistics. While IIT’s, & IIM’s have done well, they are miniscule in numbers. Also they are well funded. If foreign / private investors target small (upcoming) colleges as per the experience of TIFAC – REACH benefits will be greatly amplified. Such investments – say a few tens of lakhs of rupees – need not always be for returns in ROI sense. They can be used to gain a great goodwill in a local area which later can be a entry place for bigger business ventures.

17. Slide – 17 There are many more opportunities such as in Health Sectors. Joint Kuwaiti – Indian hospitals in India and Kuwait can be a great service provider for many clients from Arab world and mid West. (Also a good business).

18. Similarly utilising the large number of high science, high engineering Human Capital in India, Kuwait may even establish fully owned or joint venture type R&D centres in India to own Intellectual Property of world class (which can be sold or commercialised later).

                                                                       â€¦.. Many more  

19. Slide – 18 : India – Kuwaiti relation need not be versus somebody else. The author believes Technology as a Binding Force in an Interdependent World. (More can be seen in the book).

20. Slide 18 : (second bullet) Also all the above opportunities do not just appear as market driven. Most items will require various forms of Knowledge Intermediation (KI) which can accelerate many potentials into real possibilities and move them towards implementation (see elsewhere in the website [ysrajan.com] while various e-tools are useful in knowledge exchange for KI intelligent networking between people from different perspectives is crucial.

21. Since India – Kuwait meeting has a component Strategic Partnership and issues such as terrorism last two Slides 19 & 20 address these issues very briefly. They are self-explanatory.

 

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Keywords: India – Kuwait cooperation; India business opportunities; India Academi opportunities; India Development issues; terrorism; extremism; technology as binding force; Indian growth patterns.

Technology Business Human Resources

Y.S.Rajan

Extended Abstract

In the past Academia of educational sector, Business Community and Scientific & Technology Groups were acting in separate compartments. There were some sparse links between R & D Groups and academia, but very little between them and Business groups especially in India.

In the developed countries especially in the USA linkages between them have been very strong especially during the second half 20th century. That is why they have become a land of opportunities and a formidable economic power.

Studies about US Economic growth over several decades clearly indicate that over 60% is due to technology; about 15% due to worker skill upgradation; about 15% due to management; about 10% due to capital investment; for investment in land it is minus 10%! Somehow Indian business nicely “ Cartisoned” under the licence – permit – quota-raj thought otherwise. Same with Academia and S & T sector - Get Govt. funds; fix your own standards of assessment and excellence; live happily thereafter in your cocoons or ivory towers. Govt. money comes from tax payers! There are limits to its. So we witness today crises in many fronts.

   - When industry seeks technology from indigenous sources they get very little response. Or get offers which does not mean much to them ! Even for practical ideas, industry finds it difficult to have any useful inputs from the National Laboratory or Academia, though some limited improvements are taking place during the last few years.

   - Academia acts only as a supplier young bright boys and girls after degrees. Most industries find that they need practical orientation because the whole education system even in the best institutions are theoretical and contain very little of practical issues of business and industry. Often Academics blame industry not interested in academics and look at them only at a source of funding as a grant ( and get tax benefit ! )

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Vice Chanceller

 

Punjab Technical University (PTU) ; also Scientific Advisor to the Punjab Chief Minister

 

To be presented at the Lecture-cum-Dinner Meeting on 29th Dec., 2003 at Ludhiana. Organized by Ludhiana Management Association. Views expressed are personal.

- S & T Institutions have their own world, with their own bosses who fund them! They often look at Academia as suppliers of some young recruits; or use them in review committees, as a formality. Also grants giving Departments of Central Govt. look at them as people who will send proposals for research and to distribute funds. Often the entire process of knowledge generation have been mechanized system “of the Scientists, by the Scientists and for the Scientists”.

-  â€œCan this situation be in this form? Or go through a slow evolutionary change? Let us not forget dinosaurs !!

The Process of growth of economy, business, trade and science & technology has been so rapid during the twentieth Century ( after the major fillip from the Agricultural Past through the Industrial Revolution starting 18th Century ) that the process of “globalization” and “liberalization of national economies” were the natural outcomes. The author will elaborate on this. The fast changes in technology is so fast that it is impossible to survive in business without a large market. Less and less product cycle and more and more of competitive investment for innovation  – How to recover the money ? Go global.

Therefore instead of wailing about WTO or decreasing Govt. funds for academia or S & T, the three major actors have to learn to work together not only to be able to be defensive against global forces (which will into our door steps to win markets ) but also be aggressively forward looking to win in a global market.

India should aim at atleast 16% of share in global trade commensurate with its share of population. One can aim even at 20%. Then poverty will disappear from this land; employment will not be an issue for killing brothers!

The author will develops ideas from the books :

1. “India 2002”: A Vision for the New Millennium (best selling book, paper back also available) and most importantly from the three books :

2. “Empowering Indian: with Economic, Business and  Technology Strengths for the Twenty First Century” (Revised  Reprint 2002) published by M/s.Har-Anand Publications Pvt.  Ltd., F-1211, C.R.Park, New Delhi-19.

3.  "Global Business, Technology and Knowledge Sharing:   Lessons for Developing Country Enterprises”

4.  â€œChoosing Career Paths” (2003), published by M/s.Har- Anand Publications Pvt. Ltd.,  F-1211, C.R.Park,  New    Delhi-19.

and also his recent paper:

5. Article from International Journal of Information Technology    and Management titled “Towards a knowledge society in   India: issues for management”

 While the first unfolds the vision and the road map the latter describe implementational policies and detailed processes.  The socio-economic context of Punjab Technical University(PTU) will also be discussed and how Punjab Industries/Business can lead the Indian Business Conquest of the World in about a decade.

 

21.11.03 

 

Technology Policies2

10.2  KEY ELEMENTS FOR R&D INSTITUTIONS POLICY TOWARDS WORK WITH AND FOR INDUSTRY

 i) Recognise that now onwards the future of S&T be it oriented basic research, or applied research or development etc lies with those who run Industry, Agriculture and Services.Government in the long run can only support some basic research, research concerning strategic sectors, defence and national security, and a limited amount of social welfare. Resources even for traditional scientific services like mapping and surveys may in near future have to come from the users. Therefore work closely with Industry, earn resources from them.

ii) If there are problems of archaic rules or other constraints bring it in clear terms to business persons and Government, who are increasingly committed to debureaucratising S&T institutions.

iii) Institute Industry and Market Watch - global and domestic in your laboratories. Devote considerable number of talented persons to these tasks. Make it career wise more attractive than pure research or mere paper generation. Use this watch to work on concrete problems of relevance to Industry/Services. Propose projects researched through such watches.

iv) In areas where you have strengths and if Indian Industry is not ready to use them, do not hesitate to go global. Your demonstrated ability to achieve and show results to a global actor will count and many Indian industries will eventually come to you.

v) Give highest priority to joint projects with Provide mobility of personnel, if necessary by demanding changes in rules.

vi) Invest in future through conscious induction of young persons in new areas of research which have been assessed (along with Industry/business groups) to have large potential economic/commercial significance in the future. Also train your middle management not only in S&T but also for appropriate altitudinal changes.

vii) Soon move to a situation when you can take a few soft loans for R&D projects which you assess can have large commercial potential.

viii) Be open to international linkages and export of  technologies.

10.3 KEY ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES

i) First and foremost Government should greatly minimise its role of sitting over judgement on many matters of innovation and leave it the actual players in the field. As a first step towards this it is necessary to drastically reduce the interference of the Ministries with the conduct of Public Sector Units (PSU) and autonomous bodies funded by Government, which in most cases today are run by lower functionaries of the Ministry/Department secretariat having almost veto powers over Directors, Chairman etc. The existing farce of MOU with PSU should also be dispensed with. Their accountability should be on the balance sheets. The whole set of uniform procedures thrust on PSU's such as guidelines from Bureau of Public Enterprises should be removed. Unleashing of PSU and autonomous bodies from Ministry Secretariat shakles will itself generate lots of technological resources.

ii)Government funding to S&T establishments should not immediately withdrawn without facilitating them, by way of drastic debureaucratisation, to earn funds from Industry and other non-budgetary sources : whatever they get from such sources should be considered additionality. The Directors/ Heads of institution should be empowered to decide on various issues without reference to their headquarters.

ii) There is plenty of scope to reduce the number of departments dealing with S&T matters as this will facilitate speed of action without reference to far too many small departments which have mushroomed in the eighties. Also S&T/R&D institutions under the socio-economic Ministries/ Departments numbering to 100 or more should also be freed from the grip of the traditionally bureaucratic Departments and if they cannot administer in newer styles (as it is a small part of them) they may be transferred to those departments who can deal with S&T matters better.

iv) So much for removing the fetters. In addition departments dealing with Commerce, External Affairs etc should also use their channels for extensive collection and dissemination business intelligence. If necessary mean them with right people from laboratories and industries.

 v) Without sitting on judgement, playa catalytic role in speedily narrowing down a few areas of action for Indian business to excel in world markets.

This will require considerable close work between persons, and financiers in

terms forecasting and foresight exercises.

vi) As can be seen in a book on "The Technological Specialization of Advanced Countries”, 1992 technology specialization become imperative for technology policies. To quote :

“In terms of policy options, two major opposing pressures appear to shape national choices. On the one hand the importance of technological accumulation and the persistence in time of some sectoral specializations suggest policies of defending and building up consolidated advantages in the face of foreign competition. Better economic and technological performance is more likely to be achieved by persisting in the established sectors of strength, even if they happen to be in low technology fields, rather than by shifting to fields of scant national competence.

On the one hand, there is the pressure to pursue the opportunities opened by technological advances in new fields, challenging the advantages of the other countries. The changing relative position of individual countries in innovative activities can be understood as a process of growing endeavour and specialisation in technology, with countries facing challenges to their traditional advantages and seeking new advantages in other fields. The importance of innovating in new technological fields is obvious, but such efforts are risky and require a considerable amount of resources and favourable institutional conditions. They also have to meet more intense competition in global markets while their payoffs may take years to materialise. In allocating limited national resources to science and technology, difficult choices have to be made at the sectoral level.

Careful targeting of technology is required at the industry Level, taking into account the different dynamics shown by individual sectors. For instance, opposing patterns have emerged between generic and pervasive technologies on the one hand, where the international distribution of activities is more even and, on the other hand, the fields showing growing international competition and specialization, based on economies of scale and cumulative advantages. Increase in national specialization is also associated with the growth of international cooperation among firms, research institutions and Governments. These collaborative arrangements do not change the competitive nature of relations between firms, but have emerged as key elements in the technology policy of advanced countries. Identifying complementarities between the different specializations developed by various agents is likely to be an increasingly important aspect of national technology policy. The experience of the EEC high technology programmes is an important asset in the search for cooperative innovation activities, and it may deserve to be extended to other fields and to a wide range of agents in the business and research communities.

While greater resources and a more specialized pattern of technological activities appear to be associated with better national performance, several economic and institutional conditions play an equally important role in the successful development of a country's innovations. In this context, countries will find their resourcefulness increasingly challenged by a technology system which has grown more international and cooperative in orientation, specialized in selected sectors, and constrained by intense international competition. In the 1990s, the outlook for technological advance is clouded by signs of a slow-down in the R&D efforts of many countries, by stagnant patterns of domestic patenting and by uncertainty over the priorities of technological efforts. The economic recession which has hit a number of countries casts yet another shadow over the future, and  stagnating R&D efforts certainly do not contribute to renewed growth of advanced economies. Given the present context, the processes of technological change and specialization investigated in this book may suggest more sharply focused and appropriate policies for innovation and new directions for national efforts in science and technology. In turn, together with very many other economic and social factors, these may contribute to improving the prospects for advanced countries in the new century.” Unquote. Govt.should recognise these facts and help Industries accordingly.

vii) Government's role should be to facilitate all actions

required to speadily arrive at such choices by various stakeholders (without the paralysis by analysis Syndrome) and to help various actors through tax incentives, softer loans, etc for limited periods.

viii) As far the resources for R&D is concerned while there is a definite case for Industry to increase its direct investment in R&D (and to avail of various tax benefits as well), Government should immediately rationalise the use of various cesses collected by it (not just the R&D Cess) and reserve substantial portion of these cesses for funding tarqeted commercialisable R&D projects - in one industry or group of industries. Methods of use of these funds should be substantially debureaucratised.

ix) Government should enhance (about ten time) the total fund pool available in venture capital funds for R&D/technology intensive projects. Presently the amount is miniscule and various constraints make them funds not available for real technology development. Such Venture Capital funds can be given certain special concessions for next 5 to 7 years in order to manage the transition.

x) Special drive may be done for encouraging joint venture R&D corportions in the country with foreign equity not exceeding 50%. Government laboratories may also be encouraged to join such ventures.

xi) Considerable liberalisation may be done by the Government in the field of education for enhancing the skills of workers and administrators for facing the challenge of modern technologies.

xii) Since environmental management and clearances will be vital in future enhance the quality of those who administer these laws and ensure that they do not emerge another hot bed of Government control by backdoor as it happened with DGTD, in the era of industrial licensing.

10.4    JOINT ACTIONS

There have to be joint actions by all the three segments of stakeholders described in the earlier sections. The key words are technology foresight, technology specialisation, targeted technology action, speedy commercialisation and marketing of R&D, global scale actions, and ability to continually review and change strategies as required. Incidentally for all these our time scale available is about 5 years when many of the transitional periods given in GATT agreements are still protecting the old order. We should be well rooted to stand up to another major dose of global (chilly) winds that will blow soon.

Therefore the orchestration of various elements is key to      the national survival. Such an orchestration should be done less by Government departments as they have mainly shown their ability for "no-action through continual coordination". The role should now shift to Industry and Business Associations, S&T academies, autonomous institution, business houses and financial institution. Government should play a benign role of facilitating and for making available the vast resources that have been built up under it with people’s money collected in taxes. It should learn to use it sovereign powers when there are technology or trade embargoes which no doubt will be imposed or attempted or threatened of when Indian business and R&D teams win in the global markets through targeted actions.

Government should be constantly looking for creating an environment to unleash the creative energies of the Indian experts and enterpreneurs while leaving the details of actions to more professional actors in the scene.

The new role to be played by the Government would keep the apex levels of Government dealing with real issues of policies and long term strategies.However in the process a large sections of lower and middle level personnel will feel left out. They are national assets. They are now unproductive or counter productive because of the earlier policies, fears and resultant methods of functions. They can and should be given new lives.Government should facilitate, in various ways by amending rules, their leaving Government jobs and experimenting with other avenues for a period of 3 to 5 years. Many of them will learn new methods and leave Government. Business houses should be sympathetic towards them, retrain them and utilise their talent when they wish to experiment a tenure with them.

Industry has a crucial role to play in raising the investments in S&T to 2% or more of GNP by the turn of the century. This has to be an orchestrated action along with Government and financial institutions. This size of investment is crucial for a real take off as can be seen from all developed countries, the trends in European countries and South Korea.

For technology forecasting and preparing the nation for the future, various levels from the national, sectoral, industry and firm levels have to participate as a continual biennial exercise. Industry and Business associations have a special lead role to play in the Indian context.

Another important task is to create confidence in the national psyche that our businessmen, scientists, Government, and others can meet the challenge. Media of all forms should be creatively used for which business houses and Industry/business associations can playa great role. Government may give time in electronic media at special rates for such messages.

11. ACTION ON POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION

This paper has deliberately avoided spelling out the details of areas to be targeted though it is well known that infrastructure areas like Energy, Transport road/waterway/ airways), Agrobased industries, advanced emerging areas in materials, biotechnology etc will have to receive special attention. Instead of going through generalised and impressionistic judgements or cliches, it may be worthwhile for persons, business houses and R&D Institutions to sit together to narrow down specific time-bound tasks for targeted actions. Let this process be a continuing exercise thus creating a culture of joint actions.

Our scientists or business persons or administrators have shown individual excellences in the past. Now it is a matter of showing their collective strengths and ability to take orchaestrated actions to win India’s place in the global economy. It is going to be set of actions based on trust and confidence, It is a task of reaching peaks of excellence even while raising the average levels to substantial heights. It is a vision leading to specifically focussed actions to concentrate our energies and to sustain competition; it means also learning to say ‘no’ to some actions, that is the road of hard choices and fearless risk taking.

If there is a collective action on all fronts as outlined in this paper, Indian business can emerge as a serious force to content with in world of tomorrow.

(see next pages for references for those desirous of digging deeper).

 (Not enclosed for the website)

 

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