I have been fortunate to see the process of building up of great institutions from the beginning stage itself and also be able to play a key role in it.

In my student days, I have read a lot on various subjects. I am not sure whether they gave me any better insight or clarity. May be perhaps they prepared me for life. Many books or speeches address macro issues or abstract thoughts. Role of a leader, role models, character building, patriotism, ideology, etc. They are very attractive to read. But I have found through actual work over a few decades that all these have little relevance.

I am finding similar situation in India even now after over four decades which have past since my college days. Even now we have many panaceas being rolled out :

    ·       Fix a goal and work for it unflinchingly

    ·       Hard work pays in the end

    ·       Any many buzz words like Vision, Innovation, Knowledge, Leadership, Creative thinking, policy framework etc.

Most institutions grow or drift along without being affected by many of these words or speeches. Perhaps they are like sleeping pills to the minds troubled by the fast pace of changes on the one side and the routine processes one faces in day to day life.

I used to share my experiences and the resultant hypotheses with others during such hype-seminars or workshops or even at closed door meetings. One major point I used to emphasise is that changes within institutions or introducing of innovations in products through knowledge sharing/technology transfer etc or launching of creative projects etc., take place at the micro-level of people who populate the institutions. (I use the word institution in a broad context of working systems which have an organically independent existence). It is the “microsociology” of these people, which decide whether the macropolicies or vision statements or reorganisation or restructuring, etc work. One young lady academic strongly suggested to me recently that I should write these ideas down and place them in the public domain. Hence this write up.

Microsociology comprises elements such as:  how people at micro-levels of implementation hit off with each other or how they trust or respect each other, or how much they are committed to try the changes. Such personal relations are very important. Often at the “lower” operating levels there is an utter cynicism about the functioning at the top (this is true of public and private sector) and directions or vision statements from the top. They may applaud or say “yes sir” “yes madam” many times – but in their hearts they are determined not to try.

When I say lower levels, I do not necessarily mean “clerical” or “worker” level. I mean all those who are really left out of real (emphasise real) decision making process. I have many times come across professors of prestigious academic institutions who behave this way. They accept to take projects because the “overall” management or top level wants it so and not taking on projects may put them at a disadvantaged situation. They build up mental alibis to protect them against failures, even before they take up the projects.

The complicated processes especially in public sector adds an additional advantage for them to shift the blame to “somebody out there”.

What I describe here is not necessarily limited to big organisations where there is little contact between the top management and the operating levels. I have noticed them even in small and medium level organisations and industries (public and private).

So far I said more about the failure or non-performance. I have found that even for success and excellent performance such microsociology is crucial. In fact without the right microsociology at the operating levels (be it for project implementation or technology transfer or R&D or new design etc) it is not possible to have success. Often times I have seen that people who do not worry about their own personal rewards, work together to make it happen, despite the troubles of processes of the macro organisational set up. Why does it take place? Charisma of the top boss? Often, not necessarily.

I share with you some of the real life experiences I had in the developed world, India and other developing countries, through which I learnt about the existence of microsociology as an important force.

I had worked with a NASA satellite ATS0F project at a crucial position during 1970-1973. I was placed with the NASA’s Project Office at Goddard Space Flight Centre (which had the key responsibility for the project). I also worked closely with prime contractor who was responsible for overall integration as well as  sub-contractors who developed various sub-systems. We used to go often for reviews. I almost daily read up a few hundred pages of documentation. (I was at that time 26-29 years of age. Before that I had 6 years of experience in ISRO 1964-1970, as a research scholar, development engineer at ISRO in India, where I have felt the forces of microsociology though at that time I did nothypothesise about it. I was good at swimming through, sometimes fight against them ! But at NASA, though there was a microsciology operating at various levels, its impact on the work was much less than what was at ISRO. Now I look back, it is perhaps due to the fact for NASA projects be it at NASA or prime contractor or sub-contractor levels there was a continuous churning of personnel – most people have met each other only at the project and unlikely to continue with each other even for a decade).

Later 1974 – onwards I have worked in India and interfaced with all forms of Indian institutions – laboratories, academic institutions, industries (public sector & private sector), central and State government departments, defence services, industry associations, cooperative societies, farmers’ groups, NGO’s etc. I have seen in all of them the workings of microsociology much more dominating for end-results rather the hypes, promises or written agreements/contracts. Is this particularly an Indian phenomenon? Is this because there is very little of systems and processes geared towards monitoring end-results.

At this point I should add a caveat. I have dealt with projects and actions in the context of some change: R&D, or application of satellite communication or remote sensing as a replacement or supplement to the existing system or transfer a technology or knowledge which was not fully or partially existing with a system, etc. That is, I was involved in projects which involved a change in the existing mode of working: those projects or activities were change agents, either big or small, either incremental or drastic. To have the intelligence agencies within the defence services or central govt.  accept satellite based surveillance systems during the seventies and eighties even for an experimental basis was a change. (Now it is a part of many systems). To make the govt. agencies or private sector who build roads or bridges accept use of FLY ASH as a part of building material during the early nineties was not easy; it was change; they used cement and sand or mud. Now use of fly-ash  has become common place in many agencies. It has become a GREEN business as well !. To introduce newer technologies (not necessarily breakthroughs but those which were used worldwide but not in India)to sugar mills or SME’s was change Or for that matter introducing new processes (albeit simple) with farmers in Bihar, Uttaranchal, Tamil Nadu etc (especially utilising multiple agencies) was a change or make a national laboratories to develop a process or product to meet the specific needs of an industry in a timebound manner was change or working to introduce a MOBILE DIAGNOSTIC UNIT at Uttaranchal giving regular service to people. (Now it is a success working well more than five years serving more than 100,000 persons) etc.

Perhaps for systems where most actions are routine and time-tested like production lines, regular administrative offices etc effect of microsociology on end results may not be high :

What about the post-1995 Indian institutions especially IT companies, KPO’s, BPO’s etc. there are a few crucial differences: Processes to be used by them were well laid out by a foreign customer; the teams were very young and euphoric due to much higher pay packets; also churning of personnel due to new opportunities and fast growth of organisations.

But when Indian companies get into real innovation generated through internal R&D and then transferring them to regular mass production or application, they will face the issues of “microsociology” when they do so.

But again the question as to whether these “microsociology” issues arise for other countries, for such change-inducing projects or activities ?

With my limited experience with international projects (i.e. India – other country joint projects and  I have experienced with many developed and developing countries), I can only infer the following :

In the institutions of the developed world effects of microsociology are much less (for example even those who hate each other manage to work on projects by giving their agreed parts of contributions)

In developing countries, such effects are as marked as in India, in some of them even with worse effects than in India.

Is it because of the fact that personnel in developed countries have seen many changes introduced right from their youth and also because the institutions including their microstructures churn more often than the permanent stable state they acquire in the developing country ? Is it due to the incentive-disincentive mechanisms of their societies? I do not know. I guess both reasons are valid.

If one operates in a developing country, India included, in a project which induces changes, then one has to attend to microsociology of the implementation levels in some detail and keep monitoring them to make it positive.

At a top management levels or policy levels (which have their own microsociology working at very aggressive levels!) there has to be attempt to churn up institutions often. For example Indian S&T institutions, academic institutions etc which are supposed to be pioneering change agents, there has to be drastic reorganisation, by breaking many existing hierarchies (including the hierarchies of those who have “formally” retired but recycled !) and creating more competitive situations. The existing central coordination mechanisms which only strengthen existing hierarchies and thus create more cynicism at the micro-levels, ought to be dispensed with. Central coordination is antithesis to creating competitive situations.

In other words in order to remove the deleterious effects of resistance and cynicism at the operating levels (i.e. microsociology being counterproductive to the stated goals), it is necessary to create more transparent, less hierarchial, competitive organisations. Changes done at the microsociological levels should be visible and seen to be broadly “just” and “fair” and not done to suit some persons at the top.

Yes, the transition will not be easy. But it may be required if Indian institutions and Indians working in India have to be leaders in innovative changes (otherwise Indian and Indians will be followers, as we are today.)

Such changes at the top and operating levels of social service delivery systems which have to be necessarily in the public sector or supported by public sector, for example public health delivery; primary and secondary school teaching; lower level skill education systems etc. are vital as these systems are blocked by toxic microsociology.

Also such changes are required if the economic benefits are to be reached to the poor and socially under privileged groups. Today all these programmes suffer because of various microsociologies at the policy making and implementation levels. Because such changes requiring long term commitments and also results visible only at the long term, require public interventions – “pure market forces” don’t work. Hence, it is necessary that we change the current systems while microsciologies are disoriented or chaotic.

The challenge before India is not Lead India compaigns – but change Indian institutions and change the way the sociologies operate at top and bottom levels in small clusters (i.e. microsociology) with severe disconnects and often chaotic.

Will this be a topic for serious research by Indian social scientists? What I have given is my impressionistic and experiential account. Serious researches may show different facts and may provide better clues to reality.



Y S Rajan







Y.S.Rajan (Y.Sundararajan) had been since the age of 10 engaged in studies that help understanding life, society, country etc. Initial inspirer was the great Indian national poet, Subramanya Bharati through his Tamil songs. When YSR came to Bombay in 1957 (his 13 years of age), his learning expanded to almost all books in English – Swami Vivekananda Science books, Marx, Nehru, Aldons Huxley, Swami Sivananda, Aerobindo…… many more beyond school and college books. Also lots of observations of Bombay life – industry, slums, people, political activities etc. But his writings during this period 1957 – 1964 are very minimal….

One piece from a diary when he was just under 14 years is as follows :

Quote :

  I think God has given us the body with very good idea – to show us the importance of this world and that of spirit.

  Without this material body, the spirit cannot exist and in the same way without the spirit, this body cannot live. It will rot away and would be gone.

  This has got a very great significance– that which is given in ISHA Upanishd :  â€œTo darkness are they doomed who devote themselves only to the life in the world and to a greater darkness who devote themselves only to meditation…..To darkness are they doomed who worship only the spirit --- They who worship both the body and the spirit by the body overcome death, and by the spirit achieve immortality.”

  With the beautiful example of body and soul Mother has shown us how to life. “We must not leave material things as sinful nor should we leave spiritual things as a thing to be practised by some in the forest. Both are necessary. Both are interdependent (if at all a man wants a integral development of his personality.) With one things man cannot hope to become perfect. If one thing is left, other thing cannot exist; it would perish.  

  If soul leaves, body collapses; when body is not there soul cannot feely exist and evolve. It has to evolve while in the body.

  I ask “Mothers” to give me both material and spiritual things, which I need. Mothers have fully taught me that material things are also necessary to have spiritual growth. Both must be balanced and there must be a dynamic equilibrium between the two. The golden medium is the easy path.

  ‘Whatever you do, dedicate to Krishna, and Mothers with full spirit – That is the path THEY have shown me.

  That is the only way which we can practise very easily in this age where we have to be very busy earning our livelihood and almost reduced to machines in our daily life. This is the best path I have been shown. This won’t conflict in any way with our modern life.




India's Demographic Dilemma - write up [Power Point presentation]


Most Indians are proud of the fact we are a young nation with 54% of the 1 Billion plus popular 25 years & under. There are so many projections of future that are made with this fact. “ India will be or is the Global Human Resources Capital” etc.

A huge young population is a great Resource and also can be a Curse, if not tended well. This presentation in View Graph (Power Point) form tells the story in a visual form.

Slide – 1 : Emphasize the need for Actions.

Slide – 2 : It is 2005 AD. Take if you want 2007 AD Picture is the same.

What is the approximate number of Children in each age – group ? This is the number of age – cohorts in 1 years, ….. 3 years, …. 5 years….. 25 years etc. When I have asked this in many forums – comprising either young school children or B.Tech students or Executive MBA class students or well informed adult persons – I get strange answers – from a few lakhs to 100 million ! Some think in percentage, say 30% etc (of what ??).

Well Slide – 2 shows what it is approximately i.e approximately 20 million for each age.

Slide –3 : India is a long train pulled by steam engine yet slow and puffing (if has to become a powerful electric engine with 10 to 12% GDP growth rate in order to compensate for the show motions of the past several decades !)

Slide – 4 : Each young age group is a bogie of 20 million each bogie. May be up to age 30 each bogie will be so ! Higher age groups will be less than that ! Due to longevity the old age bogies won’t get emptied easily ! Most Indians who pass 40 will easily go to 80 + !

So let us see what it will be in 2015 A.D. The story will repeat; the 20 million each bogie will go to 30 years plus more !

Goes on to 70 to 80 years bogies !

What are the solutions to the questions ???

Slide – 5 : Don’t jump at population control. Dictational control is not possible. People’s decisions on birth of children have an interesting logic or rationale. Young people will also marry and have children.

Young India therefore will produce children. Even with one child a couple (voluntarily), some two, still the bogies will be full. Demographic transition (zero growth) possible only by 2050 AD.

Slide – 6 : It is self-explanatory.

Slide – 7 : All our great claims about IIT’s, excellence etc are without seeing numbers. IIT’s, BITS Pilani etc cover only a small miniscule part of the youth.

Taking all those who get into MBBS, B.E., B.Pharma, MBA, Architecture, CA, IAS and all such reasonably well paying studies only about 1.5 – 2% of the 20 million get such opportunties. (Some “high brow” Indians will call many of them to be products of “mush room” institutions ! But these persons power the knowledge economy in India and USA.) The large number of persons abroad are from this lot.

Next below about 8% is all forms of higher education – B.A. in Indian Languages, Hindi, Tamil, Marathi etc., B.A. History, Philosophy etc. B.Com, B.Sc. etc i.e. 3 – 4 years of 10 + 2 including diplomas.

Actually unemployed amongst the category is very high because the knowledge & skills given to them do not fit into the requirements of modern economy. They are the products of old ossified syllabus and teaching systems standardised by UGC and such central institutions, though lots of exciting talks take place about modernisation, vocationalisation, quality etc !

Come below.

20% Either some 10 + 2, 10 + pass fail etc.

70% never reach 10 even to appear and fail.

So bottom 90% are God’s children, left to fund themselves. They don’t enter unemployment statistics obtained through the employment exchanges – as they have to survive marketing their physical skill – limbs, head body etc – the so-called unskilled labour.

(Those keen to look into details of statistics, the educational system etc may see my book “Choosing Career Paths”). Just 5 + 8 pass etc are just useless for the modern economy – they can be “gardners”, maid servants etc.

Slide – 8 : Re-emphasize the above reality.

Don’t get carried away by slogans of universal literacy. It may be good statistics – but does not help the individual to lift her / his economic status (therefore social status).

Slide – 9 : Poses questions. Answer it for yourselves ! Search your conscience.

Slide - 10 : See some more starker statements.

Are we a great place of Human Capital ?

Slide - 11 : It is applicable in 2007 also !

What are the answers ?

Be truthful !

Slide – 12 : Yes there is hope. In the short term give to the bottom 90% and also to most of 8% give modern skills.

Massive programme Domestically RELEVANT.Globally.

Since the country with its present 7 – 8% growth and due to sectoral mix (which has now less of manufacturing & agro-processing), cannot absorb all of them, in organised sector.

Many may have to go abroad.

Therefore let the skills be certified by agencies which have CREDIBILITY internationally (be it for a plumber or carpenter or hair stylist or a construction workers ……)

In addition, small micro-macro credits  Rs. 5000 to 10,000 or so be given freely to such qualified persons so that they can set up their own jobs as repairers, qualified maid servants, specialised cooks etc.

Slide 13 : It is not enough to leave them at that.

90% without higher education is not acceptable in a modern knowledge economy.

World experience shows that higher incomes are directly proportional to higher education.

Therefore liberalise higher education so that many more can get relevant higher education even though they may spend initial years earning through skilled jobs.

Slide 14 : Is the vision (very realistic) for all Indians.

Not just India – for Indians !.

All of us have to fight for it by removing oppressive Govt. controls and work for it.

If youth of India have to be the wealth of India,

they have to be empowered with right knowledge & skills

as a continual learning process.




Key Words : Indian demography, human resources; human capital; skills; Indian youth; Knowledge economy; Indian education system.





India The New Opportunities [Power Point presentation]


Y.S. Rajan


1. This presentation was made at the Manipal University in the context of India – Kuwait Roundtable held on 15-16 January 2007.

2. The paper aims at exploring the new opportunities opening up in India and to identify a few areas in which India – Kuwait cooperation (includes commercial/business activities as well) can take a new direction.

3. Slide – 1 is just the title and the context of the talk.

4. Slide – 2 presents the key features of the Indian Economy. Sustainable and robust GDP growth and continuing economic reforms are presenting new opportunities. Indian economy is no longer closed and there is a large amount of externalisation. Some of these data are presented in the next few slides.

5. Slide – 3 Data on Indian Economy 2005-2007.

6. Slide – 4 is the desegregation of growth  in terms of sectors and years (Slides 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 are taken from CII sources, such as its websites, India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) documents, etc.)

7. Slide – 5 shows the shift of the Indian economy say from 1990-91 and 2005-06. There is a remarkable shift towards the services sector. However, this does not mean that Agriculture & Manufacturing are fading away. On the contrary, the economy is shaking out its inefficiencies. For example even while Agriculture may remain at 20% or may increase to 25% (most likely hover around 20%) of the overall GDP, there will be lots of efforts in increasing the yield, productivities and efficiencies in the use of the natural resources (water, energy, fertiliser, marine etc). [Agriculture mentioned here includes other primary productive items like cattle, fisheries etc]. There will be demands for value addition and emphasis on phytosanitary conditions and concern for environmental impact.

8. Thus Indian Agriculture will be lifting itself to absorb much higher levels of science and technology inputs. Investments in water management, energy sources and other infrastructure to assure phytosanitarty conditions, will be on the rise. Improved equipment, testing systems (soil, chemical, biological etc.) will be introduced in the primary agriculture, dairy, meat industry, poultry fishing etc. There are many business opportunities in this sector – mostly adaptation of known science and available technologies in the Indian context. Perhaps a large manufacturing of these equipment infrastructure items may be a big opportunity.

9. As a corollary to the increasing value addition, technology levels and investment, it will be necessary to grow a Agro-Food Processing sector much beyond the present levels of its being primarily in the cottage industry status. While a few major high end plants are welcome, noting the distributed nature of agriculture, milk etc., production and with a need to spread employment all around the country, high-tech but small volume Agro Processing units have to come around village clusters and Tier 3 towns in India. These units can be under big corporates as a part of their chains. Technically these units will not be called Agriculture in economic classification and appear in Manufacturing. But this sector will be a great business opportunities in the coming decade.

10. Of course now coming to Indian Manufacturing Sector, it is in its great renaissance period. Many existing units are upgrading themselves with new equipment, so much so that capital goods (mother of manufacturing) sector is growing at about 34%. Now about 2/3rd of CNC machines are imported. So with many capital goods for other industries, Construction Industry demands a large amount of new mechanised and articulated equipment. There is a large such list not to mention the automobile sector.

(Kuwaiti joint ventures or fully Kuwaiti companies can take advantage of these opportunities).

11. Services sectors will have mind boggling developments from tourism, hospitality, media, financial services, IT, ITES, BPO, KPO etc to many other creative industries. (Kuwaiti companies can try to have many joint ventures in India to serve a global market).

12. Slide – 6 indicates FDI and FII investments into India. They are growing Investors getting good returns.

13. Slide – 7 The story does not just end in the above. Indian companies are so buoyant and confident that they invest abroad as well in a steadily increasing way. During 2005-06 outward FDI from India equaled the inward FDI.

14. Slide – 8 To be balanced in understanding India, one cannot stop in the above. While numbers will look big since India is a large country, when reduced to per capita numbers, Indian figures have problems. The reason to understand it is not only to solve India’s problems but also to find new business opportunities in that process.

15. Slide – 9 & Slide – 10 have appeared in a number of places in YSR’s writings and presentations. They are crucial to understand Indian economy and society. Hence we will be giving brief here.

      Slide 9  shows that benefits of globalisation are not uniform. The two red arrows show the problem areas : URBAN SLUMS, and POORLY CONNECTED VILLAGE  which are not being given investment, knowledge and skills. They suffer from low productive agriculture, low value artisan products etc.

      Slide 10 presents in a different form and identifies the poverty zone (in which the people are trapped in low knowledge – skill – low – productivity syndrome. To raise them to higher level is the whole challenge of India’s development. At least 2/3rd of the population is in the syndrome or close to it. To unleash them creates new opportunities.

16. Slides 11, 12, 13, 14 show the high end HUMAN CAPITAL of India – fairly large investment by Govt. in S&T.

15.  Slide – 15 describes the Demographic Dilemma. See this in the website ( while the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in Higher Education is currently around 7 to 8% it needs to increase to 40%. There is a plenty of scope for private actors (including foreign ones).

16. Slide – 16 shows some Higher Education statistics. While IIT’s, & IIM’s have done well, they are miniscule in numbers. Also they are well funded. If foreign / private investors target small (upcoming) colleges as per the experience of TIFAC – REACH benefits will be greatly amplified. Such investments – say a few tens of lakhs of rupees – need not always be for returns in ROI sense. They can be used to gain a great goodwill in a local area which later can be a entry place for bigger business ventures.

17. Slide – 17 There are many more opportunities such as in Health Sectors. Joint Kuwaiti – Indian hospitals in India and Kuwait can be a great service provider for many clients from Arab world and mid West. (Also a good business).

18. Similarly utilising the large number of high science, high engineering Human Capital in India, Kuwait may even establish fully owned or joint venture type R&D centres in India to own Intellectual Property of world class (which can be sold or commercialised later).

                                                                       â€¦.. Many more  

19. Slide – 18 : India – Kuwaiti relation need not be versus somebody else. The author believes Technology as a Binding Force in an Interdependent World. (More can be seen in the book).

20. Slide 18 : (second bullet) Also all the above opportunities do not just appear as market driven. Most items will require various forms of Knowledge Intermediation (KI) which can accelerate many potentials into real possibilities and move them towards implementation (see elsewhere in the website [] while various e-tools are useful in knowledge exchange for KI intelligent networking between people from different perspectives is crucial.

21. Since India – Kuwait meeting has a component Strategic Partnership and issues such as terrorism last two Slides 19 & 20 address these issues very briefly. They are self-explanatory.




Keywords: India – Kuwait cooperation; India business opportunities; India Academi opportunities; India Development issues; terrorism; extremism; technology as binding force; Indian growth patterns.

Technology Business Human Resources


Extended Abstract

In the past Academia of educational sector, Business Community and Scientific & Technology Groups were acting in separate compartments. There were some sparse links between R & D Groups and academia, but very little between them and Business groups especially in India.

In the developed countries especially in the USA linkages between them have been very strong especially during the second half 20th century. That is why they have become a land of opportunities and a formidable economic power.

Studies about US Economic growth over several decades clearly indicate that over 60% is due to technology; about 15% due to worker skill upgradation; about 15% due to management; about 10% due to capital investment; for investment in land it is minus 10%! Somehow Indian business nicely “ Cartisoned” under the licence – permit – quota-raj thought otherwise. Same with Academia and S & T sector - Get Govt. funds; fix your own standards of assessment and excellence; live happily thereafter in your cocoons or ivory towers. Govt. money comes from tax payers! There are limits to its. So we witness today crises in many fronts.

   - When industry seeks technology from indigenous sources they get very little response. Or get offers which does not mean much to them ! Even for practical ideas, industry finds it difficult to have any useful inputs from the National Laboratory or Academia, though some limited improvements are taking place during the last few years.

   - Academia acts only as a supplier young bright boys and girls after degrees. Most industries find that they need practical orientation because the whole education system even in the best institutions are theoretical and contain very little of practical issues of business and industry. Often Academics blame industry not interested in academics and look at them only at a source of funding as a grant ( and get tax benefit ! )



Vice Chanceller


Punjab Technical University (PTU) ; also Scientific Advisor to the Punjab Chief Minister


To be presented at the Lecture-cum-Dinner Meeting on 29th Dec., 2003 at Ludhiana. Organized by Ludhiana Management Association. Views expressed are personal.

- S & T Institutions have their own world, with their own bosses who fund them! They often look at Academia as suppliers of some young recruits; or use them in review committees, as a formality. Also grants giving Departments of Central Govt. look at them as people who will send proposals for research and to distribute funds. Often the entire process of knowledge generation have been mechanized system “of the Scientists, by the Scientists and for the Scientists”.

-  â€œCan this situation be in this form? Or go through a slow evolutionary change? Let us not forget dinosaurs !!

The Process of growth of economy, business, trade and science & technology has been so rapid during the twentieth Century ( after the major fillip from the Agricultural Past through the Industrial Revolution starting 18th Century ) that the process of “globalization” and “liberalization of national economies” were the natural outcomes. The author will elaborate on this. The fast changes in technology is so fast that it is impossible to survive in business without a large market. Less and less product cycle and more and more of competitive investment for innovation  – How to recover the money ? Go global.

Therefore instead of wailing about WTO or decreasing Govt. funds for academia or S & T, the three major actors have to learn to work together not only to be able to be defensive against global forces (which will into our door steps to win markets ) but also be aggressively forward looking to win in a global market.

India should aim at atleast 16% of share in global trade commensurate with its share of population. One can aim even at 20%. Then poverty will disappear from this land; employment will not be an issue for killing brothers!

The author will develops ideas from the books :

1. “India 2002”: A Vision for the New Millennium (best selling book, paper back also available) and most importantly from the three books :

2. “Empowering Indian: with Economic, Business and  Technology Strengths for the Twenty First Century” (Revised  Reprint 2002) published by M/s.Har-Anand Publications Pvt.  Ltd., F-1211, C.R.Park, New Delhi-19.

3.  "Global Business, Technology and Knowledge Sharing:   Lessons for Developing Country Enterprises”

4.  â€œChoosing Career Paths” (2003), published by M/s.Har- Anand Publications Pvt. Ltd.,  F-1211, C.R.Park,  New    Delhi-19.

and also his recent paper:

5. Article from International Journal of Information Technology    and Management titled “Towards a knowledge society in   India: issues for management”

 While the first unfolds the vision and the road map the latter describe implementational policies and detailed processes.  The socio-economic context of Punjab Technical University(PTU) will also be discussed and how Punjab Industries/Business can lead the Indian Business Conquest of the World in about a decade.